No, more functionality and additional datasets and graphs, showing some additional data will be added during 2022-2024. Updates are due quarterly; if you want to be kept informed, please subscribe to our newsletter.
Upcoming novelties include more comprehensive coverage on the Inland Waterway (IWW) and maritime sector, new sections for the missing transport modes (rail, aviation) and a new consumer section, including a total cost of ownership (TCO) calculator for passenger cars. The TENtec public map viewer will also be upgraded in the course of 2022 to include a number of new functionalities.
Recharging point definition
EAFO applies the definition of ‘recharging points’ contained in Article 2(41) of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation (AFIR) proposal. It defines a ‘recharging point’ as “a fixed or mobile interface that allows for the transfer of electricity to an electric vehicle, which, whilst it may have one or several connectors to accommodate different connector types, is capable of recharging only one electric vehicle at a time, and excludes devices with a power output less than or equal to 3,7 kW, the primary purpose of which is not recharging electric vehicles”.
It is important to note that EAFO currently gathers data on publicly accessible recharging points only. In accordance with Article 2(38) and recital (17) of AFIR, this comprises “infrastructure which is located at a site or premise that is open to the general public, irrespective of whether the alternative fuels infrastructure is located on public or private property, whether limitations or conditions apply in terms of access to the site or premise and irrespective of the applicable use conditions of the alternative fuels infrastructure”. A recharging point located on private property that is accessible to the general public should be considered publicly accessible also in cases where access is restricted to a certain general group of users, for example to clients. This includes, for instance, also recharging points at supermarkets and parking lots of convenience stores. However, recharging points located on private properties, access to which is restricted to a limited, determinate circle of persons, such as parking lots in office buildings to which only employees or authorised persons have access, should not be considered publicly accessible recharging points and EAFO therefore currently does not gather any data on these.
Our main data provider Eco-movement further distinguishes the publicly accessible recharging infrastructure into two sub-categories, which are equally represented in certain graphs on EAFO:
- Unrestricted accessibility 24/7: assigned when the locations can be accessed 24/7 by everyone.
- Restricted accessibility: assigned when the recharging points are erected on private domain that are subject to specific, though non-discriminatory access restrictions, such as the usage of opening and closing hours as a requirement to use the associated facilities. For example, the recharging points in car parks of large warehouses or convenience stores, underground car parks, hotel and catering establishments, etc.
Counting and categorisation of recharging points
For the counting of recharging points, we use many different sources to gather and cross-check our data. Our main source is Eco-Movement, which collects the recharging point POI data directly from CPOs, and cover almost all European countries. We cross-check these data against the data we obtain from official government sources, but also against data obtained from third parties such as sector organisations.
Only legally compliant recharging points are counted separately. In this respect, Annex II of AFID/R holds:
1.1. Normal power recharging points for motor vehicles
Alternating current (AC) normal power recharging points for electric vehicles shall be equipped, for interoperability purposes, at least with socket outlets or vehicle connectors of Type 2 as described in standard EN 62196-2. While maintaining Type 2 compatibility, those socket outlets may be equipped with features such as mechanical shutters.
1.2. High power recharging points for motor vehicles
Alternating current (AC) high power recharging points for electric vehicles shall be equipped, for interoperability purposes, at least with connectors of Type 2 as described in standard EN 62196-2.
Direct current (DC) high-power recharging points for electric vehicles shall be equipped, for interoperability purposes, at least with connectors of the combined charging system ‘Combo 2’ as described in standard EN 62196-3.
This means that any AC recharging point should as a minimum be equipped with a Type 2 connector (whilst it may additionally have other connectors too). We can deduce from this that the total number of Type 2 connectors equals the total amount of AC recharging points.
Similarly, any DC recharging point should as a minimum be equipped with a CCS ‘Combo 2’ connector (while it may offer others additionally too). This means that the total number of CCS ‘Combo 2’ connectors equals the total amount of DC recharging points.
Due to different sourcing of the data, our counting methodology was slightly different pre- and post-2020.
From 2020 onwards, in accordance with Annex III of AFIR, EAFO categorises and counts recharging points as follows:
Category 1 (AC)
Slow AC recharging
P < 7.4 KW
Medium-speed AC recharging
7.4 kW ≤ P ≤ 22 kW
Fast AC recharging
P > 22 kW
Category 2 (DC)
Slow DC recharging points
P < 50 kW
Fast DC recharging points
50 kW ≤ P < 150 kW
Level 1 - Ultra-fast DC recharging points
150 kW ≤ P < 350 kW
Level 2 - Ultra-fast DC recharging points
P ≥ 350 kW
As our main data provider Eco-movement receives the data directly from CPOs, he is able to distinguish the exact number of recharging points on recharging stations.
Pre-2020 we counted the number of recharging point connectors available for EV users and deduced from this the number of recharging points. In the course of 2019, we performed a large recounting exercise, including the data in the preceding years, to better reflect the actual availability of unique charging interfaces to EV users. In particular, this recounting exercise focused on eliminating double counting of CCS and CHAdeMO DC fast recharging points (>22 kW), which in particular on most (if not all) 50kW recharging stations cannot be used simultaneously. Whilst the counting methodology for recharging points applied pre-2020 should more or less coincide with that applied post-2020, there may be slight differences and the newest methodology should be more accurate.
It is possible that there are minor differences in some cases, as not all countries report data in the same way, while EAFO applies a harmonised methodology for data collection and representation for all countries in its scope. For instance, sometimes countries use slightly different definitions or report data in slightly different categories, requiring EAFO to filter and clean those data to come to a harmonised reporting. As a concrete example: some countries include converted electric vehicles (EVs) in their EV fleet totals, whereas EAFO only reports on Original Equipment Manufacturer. (OEM) models.
Yes. CNG, LNG, LPG and biofuels are now in the scope of the EAFO project. However, since we are dependent on third parties for our data, sometimes data is not yet available. Biofuels use existing infrastructure and/or are blended in existing fuels, like bioethanol (E5/E10), biomethane (bio-CNG/bio-LNG) or biodiesel.
Data reliability is crucial for the European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO) website. Where possible we get the data directly from involved public authorities –i.e., ministries or national statistical offices. If not (yet) possible we collect the data from diverse sources and make cross checks. On each country page, you will find a link in the menu to show an overview of our sources. This overview also includes where we still have gaps and are looking for reliable sources of data.
Please contact us! We are always open to review new data sources and reliable data concerning the alternative fuels in scope.
Stakeholders, from administrations at all levels, industry and NGO’s can in principle become partners if they add significantly to the content and quality of the website. Please contact us if you would like to discuss this.
All graphs in EAFO have filters and functions allowing users to modify the information displayed, and to tailor it to their needs. Most graphs also have download functions, and provide access to historical data or more details on technology level. Please share your opinion concerning functionality and interactivity with us.
Yes, the information of most graphs can be downloaded (in CSV or XLS format). For this purpose, please use the dropdown menu on the top right corner of the graph.
We do not have a reliable and complete overview of historical incentives. More information about incentives will be gradually uploaded into EAFO. Please get in touch if you would like to provide such information for your country.
Each page, on the top, mentions the date on which that specific page has been last updated. Vehicle registration data for BEVs and PHEVs in the M1 and N1 categories are presented in a monthly breakdown. The latest month with registration data represents the last month when it was updated. In general, the latest month with registration data is updated on the 15th after the next month. As an example, vehicle registration data for April is updated latest until the 15th of June to the portal, for all countries.
Recharging infrastructure data is updated on a monthly basis, generally until the end of the next month. Other alternative fuel infrastructure data (e.g., LPG, Hydrogen), is updated on an annual basis.
The buses (M2 + M3) category includes all vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat, and having a maximum mass not exceeding 5 tonnes (M2) or exceeding 5 tonnes (M3).
This includes all city buses, minibuses, coaches, double decker buses, articulate buses or any other type of vehicle that fits these criteria. The exception is trolley buses, which are not included in the statistics at this moment. Trolleybuses use electricity as "fuel", but do not have a battery and are therefore not considered a BEV or PHEV. Statistics indicate there are about 4300 trolley buses in use in Europe at this moment. The EAFO team is investigating how the trolley buses are registered in the national databases, so that these can be added in an orderly fashion to our database.
Short answer: No.
Since Brexit, and with retroactive effect, all 'European Union' data on EAFO have been reconfigured to EU-27 data and thus to exclude the United Kingdom. This includes data from before 31 January 2020 (Brexit).
We have taken this decision to allow a more correct comparison of pre- and post-Brexit EU data.
The United Kingdom is however still part of the scope of EAFO, and UK data are provided in an individual country section.
A recharging pool consists of one or multiple charging stations and the accommodating parking lots. The recharging pool is operated by one charge point operator (CPO) at one location/address and GPS coordinates. The recharging pool is an object relevant for “cartographic view”, guiding tools and all features that represent a recharging infrastructure element on a map. A recharging pool is defined by: One location/address and GPS coordinates; One charge point operator.
A recharging station is a physical object with one or more recharging points, sharing a common user identification interface. All the physical “human-machine” interfaces are located at the charging station. Some recharging stations have a badge / RFID reader, buttons, displays, LEDs. Other stations are ‘Plug & Charge’, without buttons, display, etc. In those cases, a vehicle is automatically identified. A recharging station is defined by: One physical object; One user interface.
The electric energy is delivered through a recharging point. A recharging point may have one or several connectors (outlets or plugs) to accommodate different connector types. Only one can be used at the same time. A recharging point is defined by: Charging one vehicle at a time. In other words: per recharging station the number of recharging points and (dedicated) parking spots are equal.
A connector is the physical interface between the charging station and the electric vehicle through which the electric energy is delivered:
- A plug on a cable (one side consists of a ‘male’ plug and the other side of the ‘female version’). The plug of one side of the cable fits into the outlet of the charging point and the plug on the other side of the cable fits into the inlet on the vehicle.
- A plug attached on an inseparable cable of the charging station (common for fast charging stations). This plug fits in the inlet of the vehicle.
- An induction plate.
- A pantograph.
Usually, the number of charging points and the number of connectors is equal, but not always. For example, there are charging stations consisting of 2 charging points and 3 connectors. In that case not more than 2 connectors can be used, no more than 2 vehicles can be charged at a time (one AC and the other DC).
Fleet and registration data for alternative fuelled vehicles are cross checked with Eurostat until 2020. 2021 fleet and registration data is published by Eurostat in 2023 January, therefore the revision and quality control of those figures are carried out in Q1 2023.
Quarterly figures for charging infrastructure data in the EU are typically released around the middle of the last month within the quarter. For instance, Q3 data would generally be made available in September. It's important to note that these figures may not capture data for the entire last month of the quarter. This schedule is designed to balance timely updates with the need for data collection, verification, and publication, resulting in a slight time lag. This approach ensures the information is both current and reliable.
The year-to-date (YTD) data for AF New registrations (M1) includes cumulative registrations from the beginning of the year to the most recently completed month. To determine the last month covered by the 2023 data, please consult the data visualization tools on our platform, where the update date is displayed. This date reflects the latest month for which data is available, providing you with the most up-to-date information for your analysis.
The European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO) reports on vans and pickup trucks in the Light Commercial Vehicles (LCV) segment following the European Commission's classification, focusing on vehicles under 3.5T. This includes vans typically ranging up to 3.5T, without differentiating those between 3.5T to 5T into a separate category. Additionally, the LCV data encompasses pickup trucks without distinguishing between those used for commercial versus personal purposes. Our aim is to offer a broad view of the LCV market, capturing the overall presence and trends of these vehicles across Europe.
The European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO) compiles and provides aggregated data on electric vehicles, including trucks, without the capability to offer disaggregated data on N2 and N3 category trucks for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). For researchers seeking more detailed information on these categories, Eurostat is recommended as a valuable resource. Eurostat provides comprehensive and granular data on road transport, including specifics on various truck categories. This can be a suitable alternative for obtaining the detailed analysis required for electric trucks in Europe.
The European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO) sources its data on recharging points through a comprehensive methodology, primarily in partnership with Eco-Movement, which gathers data directly from Charging Point Operators (CPOs) across nearly all European countries. This data is further cross-checked with government sources, OEMs, sector organizations, and EV driver feedback. Only legally compliant recharging points meeting the interoperability requirements of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (AFID/AFIR) are included. EAFO's direct connectivity with a wide network of CPOs ensures a high level of data coverage and accuracy, considering operational status and public accessibility of recharging points. This collaborative approach, along with ongoing improvements in data collection and partnerships, ensures reliable and up-to-date information on the electric vehicle charging infrastructure.
Discrepancies between the increase in the Alternative Fuelled (AF) vehicle fleet from one year to the next and the number of newly registered AF vehicles during the same period can occur due to the methodologies employed in data collection and calculation. For both the total fleet and newly registered vehicles, differences arise from how these figures are determined:
- AF Fleet (M1) Passenger Vehicles (BEV): This dataset represents the total count of AF vehicles within a specific category. The calculation formula used is: (Import + New Registrations) - (Exports + Scrappage). It accounts for all vehicles, incorporating those newly registered, imported, minus any exports or vehicles removed from the fleet due to scrappage. This means the fleet numbers may include vehicles that have been imported into the country but were not counted as newly registered within the same period.
- Newly Registered M1 Passenger Vehicles (BEV): In contrast, this figure specifically tallies first-time registrations of M1 passenger vehicles that are BEVs within the reporting period, excluding second-hand imports or vehicles previously registered.
The observed discrepancies, such as a small variance in the number of vehicles from one year to the next compared to the number of newly registered vehicles, can be attributed to the inclusion of imported vehicles or those reclassified within the fleet. These imported or reclassified vehicles contribute to the overall fleet count but do not align with the number of vehicles counted as newly registered due to the distinct definitions and methodologies applied.
Understanding these methodologies is crucial for accurately interpreting the data, especially when utilizing these figures for analysis or reporting. The slight differences highlight the importance of considering both imports and the nature of vehicle registrations when analyzing the dynamics of the AF vehicle market.
Currently, the European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO) does not offer market data at the postcode sector level for any country. Our reports and data are primarily provided at regional or national levels, focusing on broader insights into the alternative fuel landscape rather than detailed postcode-specific information.