No, more functionality and additional datasets and graphs, showing some additional data will be added during 2022-2024. Updates are due quarterly; if you want to be kept informed, please subscribe to our RSS feed.
Upcoming novelties include more comprehensive coverage on the Inland Waterway (IWW) and maritime sector, new sections for the missing transport modes (rail, aviation) and a new consumer section, including a total cost of ownership (TCO) calculator for passenger cars. The TENtec public map viewer will also be upgraded in the course of 2022 to include a number of new functionalities.
Data reliability is crucial for the European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO) website. Where possible we get the data directly from involved public authorities –i.e., ministries or national statistical offices. If not (yet) possible we collect the data from diverse sources and make cross checks. On each country page, you will find a link in the menu to show an overview of our sources. This overview also includes where we still have gaps and are looking for reliable sources of data.
The newly proposed Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation (AFIR) states: ‘recharging point’ means a fixed or mobile interface that allows for the transfer of electricity to an electric vehicle, which, whilst it may have one or several connectors to accommodate different connector types, is capable of recharging only one electric vehicle at a time, and excludes devices with a power output less than or equal to 3,7 kW, the primary purpose of which is not recharging electric vehicles.
It is important to note that EAFO gathers data on publicly accessible recharging points only. In accordance with the definitions in the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (AFID) and AFIR, this comprises infrastructure which is located at a site or premise that is open to the general public, irrespective of whether the alternative fuels infrastructure is located on public or on private property, whether limitations or conditions apply in terms of access to the site or premise and irrespective of the applicable use conditions of the alternative fuels infrastructure. This includes, for instance, also recharging points at supermarkets and parking lots of convenience stores (sometimes referred to as ‘semi-public’ recharging points).
For the counting of recharging points, we use many different sources to gather and cross-check our data. Our main source is Eco-Movement, who source their data directly from CPOs and who provide charge point data for almost all European countries. We cross check these data against the data we obtain from official government sources, but also against data obtained from third parties such as sector organisations. On EAFO, we try to list all ‘recharging points’ or ‘charge points’ as Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), which can be translated to counting each socket and each plug. This method of counting is in line with the above-mentioned definition for recharging points stemming from the AFID, which states: “a recharging point means an interface that is capable of charging one electric vehicle at a time.”
In Q4 2019 we have recounted the number of recharging points deployed in Europe, to better reflect the actual availability of unique charging interfaces to EV users. In particular, this recounting exercise focused on eliminating double counting of CCS and CHAdeMO DC fast recharging points (>22 kW).
In practice, almost all (non-Tesla) DC fast recharging stations offer both CCS and CHAdeMO recharging capability. However, such recharging stations normally do not allow the use of the CCS and CHAdeMO connectors at the same time and are therefore counted as one recharging point. Some newer model DC fast chargers with higher power outputs (100 kW and above), nowadays do allow for two DC recharging connectors to be used at the same time (in a combination of CCS and CHAdeMO or two times CCS). These rechargers are therefore counted as two recharging points in the EAFO statistics.
However most, if not all currently deployed 50 kW DC recharging stations are equipped with a Type-2 AC connector, in addition to the CCS and CHAdeMO connectors. These Type-2 AC connectors can in fact be used at the same time with either the CCS connector or the CHAdeMO connector. Such stations are therefore counted as two recharging points. It has indeed been confirmed by our professional data provider, that with very little exception, the amount of Type-2 AC connectors (43 kW) equals the number of 50 kW DC recharging stations with 3 connectors (CCS, CHAdeMO and Type-2 AC). Based on this insight, we can abstract that the number of CCS and CHAdeMO connectors that are connected to the same 50 kW DC recharger, and therefore cannot be used at the same time, equals the number of Type-2 AC connectors.
Therefore, to represent the actual deployment of recharging points as accurately as possible, it has been decided, in agreement with the European Commission, to report the number of 50 kW DC recharging stations as follows:
‘CCS + CHAdeMO + Tesla Superchargers + Type-2 AC - (Number of 50 kW DC chargers with CCS, CHAdeMO and Type-2 AC connectors)’.
It is possible that there are minor differences in some cases, as not all countries report data in the same way, while EAFO applies a harmonised methodology for data collection and representation for all countries in its scope. For instance, sometimes countries use slightly different definitions or report data in slightly different categories, requiring EAFO to filter and clean those data to come to a harmonised reporting. As a concrete example: some countries include converted electric vehicles (EVs) in their EV fleet totals, whereas EAFO only reports on Original Equipment Manufacturer. (OEM) models.
Yes. CNG, LNG, LPG and biofuels are now in the scope of the EAFO project. However, since we are dependent on third parties for our data, sometimes data is not yet available. Biofuels use existing infrastructure and/or are blended in existing fuels, like bioethanol (E5/E10), biomethane (bio-CNG/bio-LNG) or biodiesel.
Please contact us! We are always open to review new data sources and reliable data concerning the alternative fuels in scope.
Stakeholders, from administrations at all levels, industry and NGO’s can in principle become partners if they add significantly to the content and quality of the website. Please contact us if you would like to discuss this.
All graphs in EAFO have filters and functions allowing users to modify the information displayed, and to tailor it to their needs. Most graphs also have download functions, and provide access to historical data or more details on technology level. Please share your opinion concerning functionality and interactivity with us.
Yes, the information of most graphs can be downloaded (in CSV or XLS format). For this purpose, please use the dropdown menu on the top right corner of the graph.
We do not have a reliable and complete overview of historical incentives. More information about incentives will be gradually uploaded into EAFO. Please get in touch if you would like to provide such information for your country.
Each page, on the top, mentions the date at which that specific page has been last updated.
The buses (M2 + M3) category includes all vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat, and having a maximum mass not exceeding 5 tonnes (M2) or exceeding 5 tonnes (M3).
This includes all city buses, minibuses, coaches, double decker buses, articulate buses or any other type of vehicle that fits these criteria. The exception is trolley buses, which are not included in the statistics at this moment. Trolleybuses use electricity as "fuel", but do not have a battery and are therefore not considered a BEV or PHEV. Statistics indicate there are about 4300 trolley buses in use in Europe at this moment. The EAFO team is investigating how the trolley buses are registered in the national databases, so that these can be added in an orderly fashion to our database.
Short answer: No.
Since Brexit, and with retroactive effect, all 'European Union' data on EAFO have been reconfigured to EU-27 data and thus to exclude the United Kingdom. This includes data from before 31 January 2020 (Brexit).
We have taken this decision to allow a more correct comparison of pre- and post-Brexit EU data.
The United Kingdom is however still part of the scope of EAFO, and UK data are provided in an individual country section.
A charging pool consists of one or multiple charging stations and the accommodating parking lots. The charging pool is operated by one charge point operator (CPO) at one location/address and GPS coordinates. The charging pool is an object relevant for “cartographic view”, guiding tools and all features that represent a charging infrastructure element on a map. A charging pool is defined by: One location/address and GPS coordinates; One charge point operator.
A Charging Station is a physical object with one or more charging points, sharing a common user identification interface. All the physical “human-machine” interfaces are located at the charging station. Some charging stations have a badge / RFID reader, buttons, displays, LEDs. Other stations are ‘Plug & Charge’, without buttons, display, etc. In those cases, a vehicle is automatically identified. A charging station is defined by: One physical object; One user interface.
The electric energy is delivered through a charging point. A charging point may have one or several connectors (outlets or plugs) to accommodate different connector types. Only one can be used at the same time. A charging point is defined by: Charging one vehicle at a time. In other words: per charging station the number of charging points and (dedicated) parking spots are equal.
A connector is the physical interface between the charging station and the electric vehicle through which the electric energy is delivered:
- A plug on a cable (one side consists of a ‘male’ plug and the other side of the ‘female version’). The plug of one side of the cable fits into the outlet of the charging point and the plug on the other side of the cable fits into the inlet on the vehicle.
- A plug attached on an inseparable cable of the charging station (common for fast charging stations). This plug fits in the inlet of the vehicle.
- An induction plate.
- A pantograph.
Usually, the number of charging points and the number of connectors is equal, but not always. For example, there are charging stations consisting of 2 charging points and 3 connectors. In that case not more than 2 connectors can be used, no more than 2 vehicles can be charged at a time (one AC and the other DC).