|Alternative Fuels means fuels or power sources which serve, at least partly, as a substitute for fossil oil sources in the energy supply to transport and which have the potential to contribute to its decarbonisation and enhance the environmental performance of the transport sector. They are defined in Article 2(1) of AFID.|
|AFI||Alternative Fuels Infrastructure||Alternative Fuels Infrastructure refers to electricity recharging or alternative fuels refuelling infrastructure.|
|AFID||Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive||Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure; OJ L 307, 28.10.2014, p. 1–20.|
|AFIR||Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation||Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, and repealing Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council.|
|BEV||Battery Electric Vehicle||Battery Electric Vehicle, also known as all-electric or 100% electric vehicle, means an electric vehicle that exclusively runs on the electric motor, with no secondary source of propulsion.|
|CCS||Combined Charging System (Combo 2)||Refers to the Combined Charging System (Combo 2), as described in standard EN 62196-3. All DC recharging points deployed in the EU must be equipped, for interoperability purposes, at least with connectors of the Combined Charging System (Combo 2).|
|CEF||Connecting Europe Facility||The Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) is a key EU funding instrument to promote growth, jobs and competitiveness through targeted infrastructure investment at European level. It supports the development of high performing, sustainable and efficiently interconnected trans-European networks in the fields of transport, energy and digital services.|
|CHAdeMO||"CHArge de MOve"||Trade name of a quick recharging system for battery electric vehicles delivering up to 62.5 kW of high-voltage direct current via a special electrical connector. It enables seamless communication between the car and the recharging point. It is developed by the CHAdeMO Association, which is also tasked with certification, ensuring compatibility between the car and the recharging point.|
|CNG||Compressed Natural Gas||Compressed natural gas (which is mainly composed of methane, CH4), to less than 1 percent of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure. Usually it is stored in cylindrical or spherical shapes.|
|CP||Recharging Point||A Recharging Point means a fixed or mobile interface that allows for the transfer of electricity to an electric vehicle, which, whilst it may have one or several connectors to accommodate different connector types, is capable of recharging only one electric vehicle at a time, and excludes devices with a power output less than or equal to 3,7 kW, the primary purpose of which is not recharging electric vehicles.|
|DSO||Distribution System Operator||A Distribution System Operator means an operator as defined in Article 2, point (29) of Directive (EU) 2019/944: a natural or legal person who is responsible for operating, ensuring the maintenance of and, if necessary, developing the distribution system in a given area and, where applicable, its interconnections with other systems, and for ensuring the long-term ability of the system to meet reasonable demands for the distribution of electricity.|
|EAFO||European Alternative Fuels Observatory||Refers to the current web portal: https://alternative-fuels-observatory.ec.europa.eu.|
|EGVI||European Green Vehicles Initiative||The European Green Vehicles Initiative was a contractual Public Private Partnership (cPPP) set up under Horizon 2014-2020 work programme, dedicated to delivering green vehicles and mobility system solutions of the future which match the major societal, environmental and economic challenges. It was succeeded in 2021, under the Horizon Europe 2021-2027 framework, by the European Green Vehicles Initiative Association for the 2Zero partnership (EGVIAfor2Zero).|
|eMSP or MSP||(Electro-)Mobility Service Provider||Means a legal person who provides services in return for remuneration to an end user, including the sale of a recharging service.|
|ESO||European Standardisation Organisations|
European Standardisation Organisations adopt European standards to harmonise technical requirements or for technical interoperability, following a mandate from the European Commission to this end, in accordance with Article 10 of Regulation (EU) No 1025/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Those standards should be based on current international standards or ongoing international standardisation work, where applicable.
|ESR||Effort Sharing Regulation||Regulation (EU) 2018/842 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 on binding annual greenhouse gas emission reductions by Member States from 2021 to 2030 contributing to climate action to meet commitments under the Paris Agreement and amending Regulation (EU) No 525/2013; OJ L 156, 19.6.2018, p. 26–42.|
|ETS||EU Emission Trading System||Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a system for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Union and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC; OJ L 275, 25.10.2003, p. 32–46.|
|EV||Electric vehicle||A motor vehicle equipped with a powertrain containing at least one non-peripheral electric machine as energy converter with an electric rechargeable energy storage system, which can be recharged externally; Electric Vehicle covers BEV, FCEV and PHEV.|
|FCEV||Fuel cell electric vehicle||Vehicle which uses a fuel cell to power its on-board electric motor, generally using oxygen from the air and compressed hydrogen. A fuel cell electric vehicle that is fueled with hydrogen emits only water and heat.|
|FCH JU||Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking||The Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU) was a public private partnership supporting research, technological development and demonstration (RTD) activities in fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies in Europe. Its aim was to accelerate the market introduction of these technologies, realising their potential as an instrument in achieving a carbon-clean energy system. At the end 2021, it was officially succeeded by the Clean Hydrogen Partnership (also called the Clean Hydrogen JU).|
|FQD||Fuel Quality Directive 98/70/EC||Directive 2009/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 98/70/EC as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas-oil and introducing a mechanism to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and amending Council Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the specification of fuel used by inland waterway vessels and repealing Directive 93/12/EEC; OJ L 140, 5.6.2009, p. 88–113.|
|GHG||Greenhouse gas(es)||A gas that contributes to the natural greenhouse effect. The Kyoto Protocol covers a basket of six greenhouse gases (GHGs) produced by human activities: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride.|
|HDV||Heavy-Duty Vehicle||Means a motor vehicle of categories M2, M3, N2 or N3 as defined in Annex II to Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 September 2007 establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles (Framework Directive) (OJ L 263, 9.10.2007, p. 1) - i.e., lorries, buses and coaches (vehicles of more than 3.5 tons).|
|HEV||Hybrid Electric Vehicle||A Hybrid Electric Vehicle is a vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) system with an electric propulsion system, which cannot be recharged externally.|
|ICE(V)||Internal Combustion Engine (Vehicle)||An Internal Combustion Engine is an engine which generates motive power by the burning of petrol, oil, or other fuel with air inside the engine, the hot gases produced being used to drive a piston or do other work as they expand. An ICE vehicle is a vehicle propelled by an internal combustion engine.|
|IEA||International Energy Agency||The IEA was created in 1974 to help co-ordinate a collective response to major disruptions in the supply of oil. The IEA has considerably evolved since and today, the IEA recommends policies that enhance the reliability, affordability and sustainability of energy more broadly. It examines the full spectrum issues including renewables, oil, gas and coal supply and demand, energy efficiency, clean energy technologies, electricity systems and markets, access to energy, demand-side management, and much more.|
|IPCC||Intergovernmental Panel on Climate|
|A scientific intergovernmental body established to provide decision-makers and others interested in climate change with an objective source of information about climate change.|
|kWh||Kilowatt hour||Refers to a unit of energy equal to 1 000 watt-hours, or 3.6 megajoules. The kilowatt-hour is commonly used as a billing unit for energy delivered to consumers by electric utilities|
|LCA||Life-Cycle Assessment||Life Cycle Assessment is an internationally standardised methodology (ISO 14040 ff). LCA helps to quantify the environmental pressures related to goods and services (products), the environmental benefits, the trade-offs and areas for achieving improvements taking into account the full life-cycle of the product. In its Communication on Integrated Product Policy (COM (2003)302), the European Commission concluded that Life Cycle Assessments provide the best framework for assessing the potential environmental impacts of products currently available.|
|LCV||Light Commercial Vehicle||Refers to N1 category vehicles, as defined in UNECE standards: vehicles used for the carriage of goods, having a maximum mass not exceeding 3.5 tonnes - i.e., vans but also including pick-up trucks.|
|LDV||Light-Duty Vehicle||means a motor vehicle of categories M1 or N1. i.e. passenger car(s) and light commercial vehicle(s) (e.g., van(s)) as defined in Annex II to Directive 2007/46/EC|
|LNG||Liquid Natural Gas||Natural gas (predominantly methane) that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. The liquefaction process involves cooling the gas to around −162 °C and removing certain impurities, such as dust and carbon dioxide. As a liquid, LNG takes up around 600 times less volume than gas at standard atmospheric pressure.|
|LPG||Liquefied Petroleum Gas||A group of hydrocarbon gases, primarily propane, normal butane and isobutane, derived from crude oil refining or natural gas processing. These gases may be marketed individually or mixed. They can be liquefied through pressurisation (without requiring cryogenic refrigeration) for convenience of transportation or storage.|
|NEDC||New European Driving Cycle||The former official EU test protocol to measure fuel consumption, CO2 and pollutant emissions from passenger cars. The protocol received strong criticism regarding its effectiveness to reduce CO2 emissions in real world operating conditions, for which reason it was replaced by the WLTP test procedure.|
|NIR||National Implementation Report|
Refers to the reports Member States have to submit to the European Commission in accordance with Article 10.1 of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive on a tri-annual basis, and for the first time by or before 18 November 2019. By means of those reports, Member States must inform the Commission about the implementation of their National Policy Frameworks and describe the measures taken in the reporting Member State in support of alternative fuels infrastructure build-up. The Commission is under an obligation to review those National Implementation Reports and report on progress to the European Parliament and to the Council.
|NOx||Nitrogen oxides||Refers to nitric oxide (NO) and/or nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions.|
|NPF||National Policy Framework|
Refers to the National Policy Frameworks Member States were required to adopt and report to the European Commission before 18 November 2016. NPFs include national targets for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in the respective Member State.
|OPS||On-shore Power Supply or Shore-side Electricity Supply||Means the provision of shore-side electrical power through a standardised interface to seagoing ships or inland waterway vessels at berth.|
|PHEV||Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle||Means an electric vehicle constituted by a conventional combustion engine combined with an electric propulsion system, which can be recharged from an external electric power source|
|PM||Particulate matter||An air pollutant consisting of small particles. Their small size allows them to make their way to the air passages deep within the lungs where they may be deposited and result in adverse health effects. They also cause reduced visibility (smog). Particulate matter is usually divided into three subcategories, based on the average aerodynamic diameter of each particle, with the understanding that the smaller the particle, the more harmful it is to human health: PM10, PM2.5 and PM0.1.|
|QR code||Quick Response code||means an ISO 18004-compliant encoding and visualisation of data|
|RC||Recharging Connector||A connector is the physical interface between the charging station and the electric vehicle through which the electric energy is delivered. Different car brands use different connector types (outlet, plug, inlet).|
|RED II||Renewable Energy Directive (EU) 2018/2001||Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, p. 82–209).|
|Ro-Ro Passenger Ship||Ro-Ro passenger ship||A ship with facilities to enable road or rail vehicles to roll on and roll off the vessel, and carrying more than 12 passengers|
|STF||Sustainable Transport Forum|
The STF was set up to assist the Commission in implementing the Union’s activities and programmes aimed at fostering the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure to contribute to the European Union energy and climate goals.
The STF serves as a platform for structural dialogue, exchange of technical knowledge, cooperation and coordination between Union Member States and relevant public and private stakeholders. It currently consists of the 27 EU Member States, complemented by 30 organisations with specific expertise in alternative fuels.
|TEN-T||Trans-European Transport Network|
The Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) policy addresses the implementation and development of a Europe-wide network of railway lines, roads, inland waterways, maritime shipping routes, ports, airports and railroad terminals.
The ultimate objective is to close gaps, remove bottlenecks and technical barriers, as well as to strengthen social, economic and territorial cohesion in the EU. The current TEN-T policy is based on Regulation (EU) No 1315/2013.
TEN-T comprises two network ‘layers’:
|Tesla SC||Tesla Supercharger||The Supercharger is a proprietary direct current (DC) fast-charging station that provides up to 135 kW of power, giving the 85 kWh Model S some 270 km of range in about 30 minutes and a full charge in 75 minutes|
Tank-to-Wheels (TTW) refers to a method used to calculate the energy consumed and GHG emitted from the point at which the transport fuel is transmitted to the vehicle (at the recharging or refuelling station) to the moment of its discharge (consumption of the fuel or electricity, while on the move).
|Type-2 AC||Type 2 AC Connector||The IEC 62196 Type 2 connector (also known as Mennekes) is used for charging electric cars, the connector is circular in shape, with a flattened top edge and capable of charging battery electric vehicles at 3–70 kilowatts|
|V2G||Vehicle to Grid||V2G describes a system in which plug-in electric vehicles, such as battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids or hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles, communicate with the power grid to sell demand response services by either returning electricity to the grid or by throttling their charging/discharging rate. Source: European Commission, Joint Research Centre.|
|WLTP||Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure||The Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) laboratory test is used, under conditions set by EU law and intended to replicate real-driving behaviour, to measure fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from passenger cars, as well as their pollutant emissions.|
|WTT||Well to Tank|
Well-to-Tank refers to a method used to calculate the energy consumed and GHG emitted from the moment of production of a transport fuel (petrol, diesel, electricity, natural gas) to the moment of fuel supply (at the recharging or refuelling station).
Well-to-Wheels refers to the holistic approach of calculating the energy consumed and GHG emitted by a transport fuel from its production, over its distribution and supply up to its use. This generic term therefore subsumes Well-to-Tank and Tank-to-Wheels.
|Bi-directional recharging||Means a smart recharging operation where the direction of the electricity flow may be reversed, allowing that electricity flows from the battery to the recharging point it is connected to.|
|Connector||Means the physical interface between the recharging point and the electric vehicle through which the electric energy is exchanged.|
|e-roaming||Means the exchange of data and payments between the operator of a recharging or refuelling point and a mobility service provider from which an end user purchases a recharging service.|
|Electric road system||Means a physical installation along a road that allows for the transfer of electricity to an electric vehicle while the vehicle is in motion.|
|Fast AC recharging point||Refers to a triple-phase AC recharging point with a maximum power output higher than 22 kW.|
|Fast DC recharging point||Refers to a DC recharging point with a maximum power output equal to, or higher than 50 kW, but lower than 150 kW.|
|High power recharging point||Means a recharging point that allows for a transfer of electricity to an electric vehicle with a power output of more than 22 kW.|
|Medium-speed AC recharging point||Refers to a triple-phase AC recharging point with a maximum power output equal to, or higher than 7.4 kW, but lower than 22 kW.|
|Normal power recharging point||Means a recharging point that allows for a transfer of electricity to an electric vehicle with a power output less than or equal to 22 kW.|
|Recharging pool||Refers to one or more recharging stations at a specific location.|
|Recharging station||Means a single physical installation at a specific location, consisting of one or more recharging points.|
|Slow DC recharging point||Refers to a DC recharging point with a maximum power output lower than 50 kW.|
|Smart recharging||Means a recharging operation in which the intensity of electricity delivered to the battery is adjusted in real-time, based on information received through electronic communication|
|Ultra-fast DC recharging point (level 1)||Refers to a DC recharging point with a maximum power output equal to, or higher than 150 kW, but lower than 350 kW.|
|Ultra-fast DC recharging point (level 2)||Refers to a DC recharging point with a maximum power output higher than 350 kW.|