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European Alternative Fuels Observatory

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1. EU alternative fuels fleet

The reference year for the graphs and maps in this section is 2021. Since 2021 CNG, LNG and LPG vehicle data are not yet available, these are extrapolated based on historic data and evolutions. 

1.1 Absolute numbers (2021)

This sub-section shows the total alternative fuels (AF) fleet numbers in the EU Member States in the reference year, and, where such data is available, compares these against the total vehicle fleet numbers in those Member States. 

AF passenger cars and vans

Fleet of alternative fuels (BEV, PHEV, H2, LPG, CNG, LNG) passenger cars and vans (M1+N1)

AF passenger cars and vans

Percentage of the total passenger cars and vans fleet (M1+N1) that is powered by alternative fuels (BEV, PHEV, H2, LPG, CNG, LNG)

AF buses

Fleet of alternative fuels (BEV, PHEV, H2, LPG, CNG, LNG) buses (M2 + M3)

AF trucks

Fleet of alternative fuels (BEV, PHEV, H2, LPG, CNG, LNG) trucks (N2 + N3)

BEV passenger cars and vans

Fleet of battery-electric (BEV) passenger cars and vans (M1+N1)

BEV% passenger cars and vans

Percentage of the total passenger cars and vans fleet (M1+N1) that is full battery-electric (BEV)

PHEV passenger cars and vans

Fleet of plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) passenger cars and vans (M1+N1)

PHEV% passenger cars and vans

Percentage of the total passenger cars and vans fleet (M1+N1) that is plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV)

H2 passenger cars and vans

Fleet of hydrogen (H2) passenger cars and vans (M1+N1)

H2% passenger cars and vans

Percentage of the total passenger cars and vans fleet (M1+N1) that is powered by hydrogen (H2)

1.2 Growth rates (2021 vs. 2020)

This sub-section compares alternative fuels fleet numbers in the reference year 2021, to alternative fuels fleet numbers in the preceding year 2020, and, where such data is available, compares these alternative fuels fleet growth rates against the overall growth rates of vehicles in the same vehicle categories.

Growth rate AF passenger cars and vans

Year-over-year growth rate of the alternative fuels (BEV, PHEV, H2, LPG, CNG, LNG) passenger cars and vans (M1+N1) fleet.

Growth rate AF buses

Year-over-year fleet growth rate of the alternative fuels (BEV, PHEV, H2, LPG, CNG, LNG) buses (M2+M3) fleet.

Growth rate AF trucks

Year-over-year growth rate of the alternative fuels (BEV, PHEV, H2, LPG, CNG, LNG) truck (N2+N3) fleet.

Growth rate BEV passenger cars and vans

Year-over-year growth rate of the BEV passenger cars and vans (M1+N1) fleet.

Growth rate BEV buses

Year-over-year growth rate of the BEV buses (M2+M3) fleet.

Growth rate BEV trucks

Year-over-year growth rate of the BEV trucks (N2+N3) fleet.

Growth rate PHEV passenger cars and vans

Year-over-year growth rate of the PHEV passenger cars and vans (M1+N1) fleet.

Growth rate PHEV buses

Year-over-year growth rate of the PHEV buses (M2+M3) fleet.

Growth rate PHEV trucks

Year-over-year growth rate of the PHEV trucks (N2+N3) fleet.

Growth rate H2 passenger cars and vans

Year-over-year growth rate of the hydrogen (H2) passenger cars and vans (M1+N1) fleet.

Growth rate H2 buses

Year-over-year growth rate of the hydrogen (H2) buses (M2+M3) fleet.

Growth rate H2 trucks

Year-over-year growth rate of the hydrogen (H2) trucks (N2+N3) fleet.

2. EU alternative fuels registrations

2.1 Absolute numbers (2021)

This sub-section shows the new registrations of alternative fuels vehicles in the Member States, and, where such data is available, compares these against the total numbers of new registrations in the same vehicle categories in those Member States. 

AF passenger cars and vans

New registrations of alternative fuels (BEV, PHEV, H2, LPG, CNG, LNG) passenger cars and vans (M1 + N1)

Market share AF passenger cars and vans

Percentage of the total new passenger cars and vans (M1 + N1) registrations that is powered by alternative fuels (BEV, PHEV, H2, LPG, CNG, LNG)

AF buses

New registrations of alternative fuels (BEV, PHEV, H2, LPG, CNG, LNG) buses (M2 + M3)

AF trucks

New registrations of alternative fuels (BEV, PHEV, H2, LPG, CNG, LNG) trucks (N2 + N3)

BEV passenger cars and vans

New registrations of battery electric passenger cars and vans (M1+N1)

Market share BEV passenger cars and vans

Percentage of the total new passenger cars and vans (M1 + N1) registrations that is full battery electric (BEV)

PHEV passenger cars and vans

New registrations of plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) passenger cars and vans (M1+N1)

Market share PHEV passenger cars and vans

Percentage of the total new passenger cars and vans (M1 + N1) registrations that is plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV)

H2 passenger cars and vans

New registrations of hydrogen (H2) passenger cars and vans (M1+N1).

Market share H2 passenger cars and vans

Percentage of the total new passenger cars and vans (M1 + N1) registrations that is powered by hydrogen (H2)

3. EU alternative fuels infrastructure

The reference year for the graphs and maps in this section is 2021. Since 2021 CNG, LNG and LPG infrastructure data are not yet available, these are extrapolated based on historic data and evolutions.

3.1 Electricity

This sub-section provides an overview of the publicly accessible recharging points installed in the Member States, their growth rates (year-over-year, between the reference year and the preceding year) and their total power output. 

Recharging points

Total number of publicly accessible recharging points.

Growth rate of recharging points

Year-over-year (2021 vs. 2020) growth rate of publicly accessible recharging points.

AC recharging points

Total number of publicly accessible AC recharging points.

Growth rate of AC recharging points

Year-over-year (2021 vs. 2020) growth rate of publicly accessible AC recharging points.

DC recharging stations

Total number of publicly accessible DC recharging points.

Growth rate of DC recharging points

Year-over-year (2021 vs. 2020) growth rate of publicly accessible DC recharging points (EVSE)

3.2 Hydrogen (H2)

This sub-section provides an overview of the publicly accessible hydrogen refuelling points installed in the Member States, their growth rates (year-over-year, between the reference year and the preceding year) and their relative numbers compared to the registered amount of hydrogen vehicles. 

H2 refuelling points

Total number of hydrogen (H2) refuelling points

Growth rate of H2 refuelling points

Year-over-year (2021 vs. 2020) growth rate of hydrogen (H2) refuelling points.

H2 vehicles per H2 refuelling point

Number of hydrogen (H2) vehicles per hydrogen refuelling point (high and low pressure).

3.3 Natural gas

This sub-section provides an overview of the publicly accessible natural gas (CNG and LNG) refuelling points installed in the Member States, their growth rates (year-over-year, between the reference year and the preceding year) and their relative numbers compared to the registered amount of natural gas vehicles. 

CNG refuelling points

Total number of CNG refuelling points

Growth rate of CNG refuelling points

Year-over-year (2021 vs. 2020) growth rate of CNG refuelling points.

CNG vehicles per CNG refuelling point

Number of CNG vehicles per CNG refuelling point.

LNG refuelling points

Total number of LNG refuelling points

Growth rate of LNG refuelling points

Year-over-year (2021 vs. 2020) growth rate of LNG refuelling points.

LNG vehicles per LNG refuelling point

Number of LNG vehicles per LNG refuelling point

3.4 LPG

This sub-section provides an overview of the publicly accessible LPG refuelling points installed in the Member States, their growth rates (year-over-year, between the reference year and the preceding year) and their relative numbers compared to the registered amount of LPG vehicles. 

LPG refuelling points

Total number of LPG refuelling points

Growth rate of LPG refuelling points

Year-over-year (2021 vs. 2020) growth rate of LPG refuelling points.

LPG vehicles per LPG refuelling point

Number of LPG vehicles per LPG refuelling point.