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European Alternative Fuels Observatory

European policies and legislation

In order to meet the objectives set at global level by the Paris Agreement, the EU’s goal of at least -55% greenhouse gas reductions by 2030 and of climate neutrality by 2050, the European Union (EU) needs to decarbonise the transport sector. Driven by a growing demand in mobility and freight, and despite improvements in the efficiency of engines, the transport sector has however not seen the same decline in CO2 emissions experienced by other sectors of the economy. In contrast, transport emissions have even increased compared to 1990 levels.

The sustainable and smart mobility strategy therefore makes it a key priority to boost the uptake of zero- and low-emission vehicles, renewable and low-carbon fuels and related infrastructure for all modes of transport, without further delay. Boosting the uptake of renewable and low-carbon fuels must moreover go hand-in-hand with the creation of a comprehensive network of recharging and refuelling infrastructure to fully enable the widespread uptake of low- and zero-emission vehicles in all transport modes.

This section provides an overview of the most relevant legislative and non-legislative instruments adopted by the European Union in the area of sustainable transport, and alternative fuels in particular, including a short description and link to access the documents.

This section will be regularly updated to include the newest legislation and policy documents in this field.

Decarbonisation (general)

'Fit for 55': delivering the EU's 2030 Climate Target on the way to climate neutrality

The “Fit for 55” Package is a set of proposals to revise and update EU legislation and to put in place new initiatives with the aim of ensuring that EU policies are in line with the climate goals agreed by the Council and the European Parliament. It refers to the at least 55% emission reduction target which the EU has set for 2030. The proposed package aims to bring the EU’s climate and energy legislation in line with the 2030 goal.

It contains proposals that could transform the transport sector, including the extension of the Emissions Trading System (ETS) to the maritime sector and the creation of a parallel ETS for road transport; the Regulation on CO₂ emission performance standards for cars and vans and the Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Regulation (AFIR). Other measures, such as the revision of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED), introduce incentives for low-carbon energy in transportation. 
 

Title and reference

'Fit for 55': delivering the EU's 2030 Climate Target on the way to climate neutrality

Type

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions

Reference

COM/2021/550 final

Adoption date

14 July 2021

Scope and objectives

The ‘Fit for 55’ Package aims to bring the EU’s legislation in line with its 2030 climate ambition. It contains a set of legislative proposals and amendments considered necessary by the Commission to achieve the 55 % emission reduction target set by the co-legislator for 2030.
It contains a number of proposals aimed at decarbonising the transport sector, including the extension of the Emissions Trading System (ETS) to the maritime sector and the creation of a parallel ETS for road transport, the Regulation on CO₂ emission performance standards for cars and vans and the Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Regulation (AFIR). Other measures, such as the revision of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED), introduce incentives for low-carbon energy in transport. More info here: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/legislative-train/package-fit-for-55

Link

Proposal for a revision of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS)

The proposal provides the expansion of the EU ETS to sectors not yet covered by it such as maritime shipping and imposes more stringent requirements on aviation. On shipping, the proposal indicates that shipping companies will have to purchase and surrender EU ETS emission allowances for each tonne of reported CO2 emissions.

Title

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a system for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Union, Decision (EU) 2015/1814 concerning the establishment and operation of a market stability reserve for the Union greenhouse gas emission trading scheme and Regulation (EU) 2015/757

Type

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

COM/2021/551 final

Adoption date

14 July 2021

Scope and objectives

To achieve the EU's overall GHG emissions reduction target for 2030, the sectors covered by the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) must reduce their emissions by 43 % compared to 2005 levels. The proposal by the Commission provides for an increased target for lowering emissions, from 43 to 61 % below 2005 levels by 2030. The proposal provides the expansion of the EU ETS to sectors not yet covered by it such as maritime shipping and imposes more stringent requirements on aviation. On shipping, the proposal indicates that shipping companies will have to purchase and surrender EU ETS emission allowances for each tonne of reported CO2 emissions. Importantly, it mentions that shipping companies will only have to surrender allowances for a portion of their emissions during an initial phase-in period, reaching 100 % after 3 years. On aviation, the Commission proposes to gradually remove free emissions allowances and to move to full auctioning of allowances by 2027 to reduce emissions.
Furthermore, the proposal recommends the development of a separate, adjacent EU-wide emissions trading system, which will put a price on emissions from the building and road transport sectors. This separate system will regulate fuel suppliers, rather than individual households and car drivers. Fuel suppliers will be responsible for monitoring and reporting the quantity of fuels they place on the market and for surrendering emission allowances each calendar year depending on the carbon intensity of the fuels. The new system is designed to start operating from 2026.

Link

Proposal for a revision of the Energy Taxation Directive

The ETD is outdated and does not reflect the EU’s climate and energy policy frameworks or the EU’s legal commitment to at least a 55 % reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 and a climate-neutral continent by 2050 and therefore it is currently under revision. 

Title

Proposal for a Council Directive restructuring the Union framework for the taxation of energy products and electricity

Type

Proposal for a Council Directive

Reference

COM/2021/563 final

Adoption date

14 July 2021

Scope and objectives

The ETD is outdated and does not reflect the EU’s climate and energy policy frameworks or the EU’s legal commitment to at least a 55 % reduction in GHG emissions by 2030 and a climate-neutral continent by 2050 and therefore it is currently under revision.
Its update centres on two main areas of reform: (i) introducing a new structure of tax rates based on the energy content and environmental performance of the fuels and electricity, (ii) broadening the taxable base by including more products in its scope by removing some of the current exemptions and reductions. More info here: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/qanda_21_3662

Link

Proposal for amending the Renewable Energy Directive (RED III)

The current EU target of at least 32 % renewable energy by 2030, set in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED II), is not sufficient and needs to be increased to 38-40 %, according to the Climate Target Plan (CTP).

Title and reference

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the promotion of energy from renewable sources, and repealing Council Directive (EU) 2015/652

Type

Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

COM/2021/557 final

Adoption date

14 July 2021

Scope and objectives

The current EU target of at least 32 % renewable energy by 2030, set in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED II), is not sufficient and needs to be increased to 38-40 %, according to the Climate Target Plan (CTP). At the same time, new accompanying measures in different sectors in line with the Energy System Integration, the Hydrogen, the Offshore Renewable Energy, and the Biodiversity Strategies are required to achieve this increased target.
The overall objectives of the revision of RED II are to achieve an increase in the use of energy from renewable sources by 2030, to foster better energy system integration and to contribute to climate and environmental objectives including the protection of biodiversity, thereby addressing the intergenerational concerns associated with global warming and biodiversity loss. This revision of RED II is essential to achieve the increased climate target as well as to protect our environment and health, reduce our energy dependency and contribute to the EU’s technological and industrial leadership along with the creation of jobs and economic growth.
The amendments aim at increasing the ambition level of renewables in transport by setting a 13 % greenhouse gas intensity reduction target, increasing the sub-target for advanced biofuels from at least 0.2 % in 2022 to 0.5 % in 2025 and 2.2 % in 2030, and introducing a 2.6 % sub-target for renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBOs). The proposal also introduces a credit mechanism to promote electromobility, under which economic operators that supply renewable electricity to electric vehicles via public charging stations will receive credits they can sell to fuel suppliers who can use them to satisfy the fuel supplier obligation.
The proposal also sets some technical rules for the electromobility sector, aimed at better integrating electric vehicles into the electricity system.

Link
Latest news

Status: Awaiting committee decision

European Climate Law

Title

Regulation (EU) 2021/1119 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 June 2021 establishing the framework for achieving climate neutrality and amending Regulations (EC) No 401/2009 and (EU) 2018/1999 (‘European Climate Law’)
OJ L 243, 9.7.2021, p. 1–17

Type

Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

OJ L 243, 9.7.2021, p. 1–17

Adoption date

Published in June 2021

Scope and objectives

The European Climate Law writes into law the goal set out in the European Green Deal for Europe’s economy and society to become climate neutral by 2050. The law also sets the intermediate target of reducing net GHG emissions by at least 55 % by 2030, compared to 1990 levels.

Link

Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2020/2126 under Effort Sharing Regulation 2021-2030

Annual emission allocations for each Member State for each year of the period from 2021 to 2030 and total quantities that may be taken into account for a Member State’s compliance under Article 9 of Regulation (EU) 2018/842 are to be calculated compared with those of 2005 levels in each Member State.

Title

Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2020/2126 of 16 December 2020 on setting out the annual emission allocations of the Member States for the period from 2021 to 2030 pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2018/842 of the European Parliament and of the Council

Type

Commission Implementing Decision

Reference

C/2020/8865
OJ L 426, 17.12.2020, p. 58–64

Adoption date

16 December 2020

Entry into force

6 January 2021

Scope and objectives

Annual emission allocations for each Member State for each year of the period from 2021 to 2030 and total quantities that may be taken into account for a Member State’s compliance under Article 9 of Regulation (EU) 2018/842 are to be calculated compared with those of 2005 levels in each Member State.

Link
Latest news

Currently under revision as part of the ‘Fit for 55’ Package of legislative proposals, with a view to achieving climate neutrality in the EU by 2050, including the 2030 target of net reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55 %.

Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)

Title

Directive (EU) 2018/844 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 amending Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency

Type

Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

OJ L156, 19.6.2018, p. 75-91

Adoption date

30 May 2018

Entry into force

9 July 2018

Scope and objectives

The Directive requires Member States to establish stronger long-term renovation strategies to support the renovation of existing national building stock into high-energy efficient and decarbonised buildings by 2050. It requires that all new buildings must be nearly zero-energy buildings as of 31 December 2020. Next to provisions on smart grid, insulation, heating and cooling, the 2018 amendments for the first time introduced requirements on electromobility. In particular, the EPBD requires the installation of recharging points in certain parking spaces adjacent to residential and non-residential buildings. It also sets ducting requirements that allow for subsequent installation of recharging points in new or renovated residential buildings of a certain size (as well as for non-residential buildings). More news and studies are available here: https://ec.europa.eu/energy/topics/energy-efficiency/energy-efficient-b…

Link

Renewable Energy Directive (RED II)

This Directive establishes a common framework for the promotion of energy from renewable sources. It sets a binding Union target for the overall share of energy from renewable sources in the Union's gross final consumption of energy in 2030.

Title and reference

Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources

Type

Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, p. 82–209

Adoption date

11 December 2018

Entry into force

24 December 2018

Scope and objectives

This Directive establishes a common framework for the promotion of energy from renewable sources. It sets a binding Union target for the overall share of energy from renewable sources in the Union's gross final consumption of energy in 2030. It also lays down rules on financial support for electricity from renewable sources, on self-consumption of such electricity, on the use of energy from renewable sources in the heating and cooling sector and in the transport sector, on regional cooperation between Member States, and between Member States and third countries, on guarantees of origin, administrative procedures and on information and training. It also establishes sustainability and GHG emissions saving criteria for biofuels, bioliquids and biomass fuels.

Link
Latest news

Corrigendum to Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (Official Journal of the European Union L 328 of 21 December 2018) (OJ L 311, 25.9.2020, p. 11–19)
On 14 July 2021, the European Commission proposed a revision of the RED under the ‘Fit for 55’ Package of legislative proposals, with a view to achieving climate neutrality in the EU by 2050, including the 2030 target of net reducing GHG emissions by at least 55 %.

Effort Sharing Regulation 2021-2030

Under the current legislation, EU Member States have binding annual GHG emission targets for 2021-2030 for those sectors of the economy that fall outside the scope of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). These sectors, including transport, buildings, agriculture, non-ETS industry and waste, account for almost 60 % of total domestic EU emissions.

Title

Regulation (EU) 2018/842 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 on binding annual greenhouse gas emission reductions by Member States from 2021 to 2030 contributing to climate action to meet commitments under the Paris Agreement and amending Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 (Text with EEA relevance)

Type

Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

PE/3/2018/REV/2

OJ L 156, 19.6.2018, p. 26–42

Adoption date

30 May 2018

Entry into force

9 July 2018

Scope and objectives

Under the current legislation, EU Member States have binding annual GHG emission targets for 2021-2030 for those sectors of the economy that fall outside the scope of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). These sectors, including transport, buildings, agriculture, non-ETS industry and waste, account for almost 60 % of total domestic EU emissions.

In October 2014, EU leaders set a binding economy-wide domestic emission reductions target of at least 40 % by 2030 compared to 1990.

They specified that sectors of the economy not covered by the EU ETS must reduce emissions by 30 % by 2030 compared to 2005 as their contribution to the overall target.

The Effort Sharing Regulation translates this commitment into binding annual GHG emission targets for each Member State for the period 2021–2030, based on the principles of fairness, cost-effectiveness and environmental integrity.

Link

Fuel Quality Directive

The Fuel Quality Directive requires a reduction of the GHG intensity of transport fuels by a minimum of 6 % by 2020. Member States are obliged to ensure that suppliers respect the target of 6 % after the year 2020. The monitoring and reporting obligations relating to GHG emissions intensity also remain applicable after that date. Together with the Renewable Energy Directive, it also regulates the sustainability of biofuels.

Title

Directive 2009/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 98/70/EC as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas oil and introducing a mechanism to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and amending Council Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the specification of fuel used by inland waterway vessels and repealing Directive 93/12/EEC

Type

Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

OJ L 140, 5.6.2009, p. 88–113

Adoption date

23 April 2009

Entry into force

25 June 2009

Scope and objectives

The Fuel Quality Directive requires a reduction of the GHG intensity of transport fuels by a minimum of 6 % by 2020. Member States are obliged to ensure that suppliers respect the target of 6 % after the year 2020. The monitoring and reporting obligations relating to GHG emissions intensity also remain applicable after that date. Together with the Renewable Energy Directive, it also regulates the sustainability of biofuels.

The GHG intensity of fuels is calculated on a life-cycle basis, covering emissions from extraction, processing and distribution. Emissions reductions are calculated against a 2010 baseline of 94.1 gCO2eq/MJ.

The 6 % reduction target is likely to be achieved primarily through:

• the use of biofuels, electricity, less carbon intense fossil fuels, and renewable fuels of non-biological origin (such as e-fuels);
• a reduction of upstream emissions (such as flaring and venting) at the extraction stage of fossil feedstocks.

Link

EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)

The EU ETS is a cornerstone of the EU's policy to combat climate change and its key tool for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cost effectively. It is the world's first major carbon market and remains the biggest one. This Directive will apply to emissions from the activities listed in Annex I and GHGs listed in Annex II. This Directive will apply without prejudice to any requirements pursuant to Directive 96/61/EC. The aviation sector has been included in the EU ETS since the start of 2012. The necessary legislation was adopted in 2008 through an amendment of the EU ETS Directive, which now includes provisions for aviation. The system applies to EU and non-EU airlines that operate to and from airports in an EU ETS country, and all aircraft operators performing flights covered by the EU ETS have to surrender emission allowances equivalent to their emissions. While the procedures for participation and compliance under the EU ETS are similar to fixed installations, there are a few modalities specific to the aviation sector.

Title

Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a system for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Union and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC

Type

Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

OJ L 275, 25.10.2003, p. 32–46

Adoption date

13 October 2003

Entry into force

25 October 2003

Scope and objectives

The EU ETS is a cornerstone of the EU's policy to combat climate change and its key tool for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cost effectively. It is the world's first major carbon market and remains the biggest one. This Directive will apply to emissions from the activities listed in Annex I and GHGs listed in Annex II. This Directive will apply without prejudice to any requirements pursuant to Directive 96/61/EC. The aviation sector has been included in the EU ETS since the start of 2012. The necessary legislation was adopted in 2008 through an amendment of the EU ETS Directive, which now includes provisions for aviation. The system applies to EU and non-EU airlines that operate to and from airports in an EU ETS country, and all aircraft operators performing flights covered by the EU ETS have to surrender emission allowances equivalent to their emissions. While the procedures for participation and compliance under the EU ETS are similar to fixed installations, there are a few modalities specific to the aviation sector.

Link

2050 long-term climate strategy

The EU aims to be climate neutral by 2050 – an economy with net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This objective is at the heart of the European Green Deal and in line with the EU’s commitment to global climate action under the Paris Agreement.

Title

Long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategy of the European Union and its Member States

Type

Communication

Reference

Croatian Presidency of the Council of the European Union, Submission by Croatia and the European Commission on behalf of the European Union and its Member States, Zagreb, 6 March 2020

Adoption date

Published in March 2020

Scope and objectives

The EU aims to be climate neutral by 2050 – an economy with net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This objective is at the heart of the European Green Deal and in line with the EU’s commitment to global climate action under the Paris Agreement.

Link

Green Deal Communication

The Communication on the European Green Deal was presented by Commission President Ursula von der Leyen on 11 December 2019. With the Green Deal, the European Commission adopted a set of proposals to make the EU's climate, energy, transport, and taxation policies fit for reducing net GHG emissions by at least 55 % by 2030, compared to 1990 levels.

Title

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - the European Green Deal

Type

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions

Reference

COM/2019/640 final

Adoption date

11 December 2019

Scope and objectives

The Communication on the European Green Deal was presented by Commission President Ursula von der Leyen on 11 December 2019. With the Green Deal, the European Commission adopted a set of proposals to make the EU's climate, energy, transport, and taxation policies fit for reducing net GHG emissions by at least 55 % by 2030, compared to 1990 levels.

Today, transport emissions represent around 25% of the EU's total greenhouse gas emissions, and these emissions have increased over recent years. The goal of being the first climate-neutral continent by 2050 requires ambitious changes in transport. The Green Deal establishes a clear path to achieve a 90 % reduction in transport-related GHG emissions by 2050, together with more stringent air pollutant emissions standards for combustion engine vehicles and the promotion of clean fuels including aviation and maritime transport. More information can be found here. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/fs_20_2350

Link

CORSIA

All airline operators with international flights producing annual CO2 emissions greater than 10 000 tonnes from airplanes with a maximum take-off mass greater than 5 700 kg, regardless of whether their administering State is participating or not in the offsetting phases, will be required to monitor, verify and report their CO2 emissions during 2019 and 2020. Humanitarian, medical and firefighting operations are exempted. The average yearly CO2 emissions reported during that period will represent the baseline for carbon neutral growth from 2020. Beyond 2020, the aviation sector will be required to offset its international CO2 emissions above this level. In general, offsetting is done through the purchase and cancellation of emissions units, arising from different sources of emissions reductions achieved through mechanisms, programmes or projects. The buying and selling of eligible emissions units happens through the carbon market.

Title and reference

Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA)

Type

International agreement

Reference

ICAO Resolution A40-19

Adoption date

October 2016

Entry into force

1 January 2019

Scope and objectives

All airline operators with international flights producing annual CO2 emissions greater than 10 000 tonnes from airplanes with a maximum take-off mass greater than 5 700 kg, regardless of whether their administering State is participating or not in the offsetting phases, will be required to monitor, verify and report their CO2 emissions during 2019 and 2020. Humanitarian, medical and firefighting operations are exempted. The average yearly CO2 emissions reported during that period will represent the baseline for carbon neutral growth from 2020. Beyond 2020, the aviation sector will be required to offset its international CO2 emissions above this level. In general, offsetting is done through the purchase and cancellation of emissions units, arising from different sources of emissions reductions achieved through mechanisms, programmes or projects. The buying and selling of eligible emissions units happens through the carbon market.

Link
Latest news

Alternative Fuels

Report on the Assessment of the Member States National Policy Frameworks for the development of the market as regards alternative fuels in the transport sector and the deployment of the relevant infrastructure pursuant to Art. 10 (3) of Directive 2014/94/

Directive 2014/94/EU requires Member States to notify to the European Commission National Policy Frameworks (NPFs) for the development of the market as regards alternative fuels in the transport sector and the deployment of the relevant infrastructure. To implement Article 10.2 of the Directive, the Commission carried out an assessment of the NPFs and their coherence at Union level, including an evaluation of the level of attainment of the national targets and objectives referred to in Article 3 (1) of the Directive. 

Title and reference

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Detailed Assessment of the Member States Implementation Reports on the National Policy Frameworks for the development of the market as regards alternative fuels in the transport sector and the deployment of the relevant infrastructure. Implementation of Art 10 (3) of Directive 2014/94/EU Accompanying the document REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL on the application of Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure

Published date

March 2021

Relevant links

Proposal for a revision of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)

On 15 December 2021, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a major revision (recast) of the EPBD.

Title

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings (recast)

Type

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council (recast)

Reference

COM/2021/802 final

Adoption date

15 December 2021

Executive summary

On 15 December 2021, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a major revision (recast) of the EPBD.
The EPBD includes a number of provisions relating to electromobility, requiring the installation of recharging points in certain parking spaces adjacent to residential and non-residential buildings, as well as ducting requirements facilitating the subsequent installation of recharging points.
The proposal to recast the EPBD seeks to step up the ambition to make parking places in buildings ‘recharging-ready’, either through increased deployment targets or pre-cabling targets. It not only proposes (increased) targets for new and majorly renovated buildings, but also for the existing building stock. It also sets smart charging requirements and introduces the ‘right to plug’.

Link
Latest news

After the legislative proposal and accompanying impact assessment were adopted, the Commission opened its legislative proposal to a period of public feedback (15 December 2021 to 2 March 2022).
In the European Parliament, the file has been referred to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE), which will in due course appoint a rapporteur to produce a draft report.

ReFuelEU Aviation (proposal)

The ReFuelEU proposal aims to boost the supply and demand for sustainable aviation fuels in the EU, helping the aviation sector to reduce its environmental footprint and enable the achievement of the EU’s climate targets. The objective of the proposal is to gear up the EU aviation market with robust rules to ensure that gradually increasing shares of sustainable aviation fuels can be introduced at EU airports without detrimental effects on the competitiveness of the EU aviation internal market.

Title

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on ensuring a level playing field for sustainable air transport

Type

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

COM/2021/561 final

Adoption date

14 July 2021

Entry into force

1 January 2023

Scope and objectives

The ReFuelEU proposal aims to boost the supply and demand for sustainable aviation fuels in the EU, helping the aviation sector to reduce its environmental footprint and enable the achievement of the EU’s climate targets. The objective of the proposal is to gear up the EU aviation market with robust rules to ensure that gradually increasing shares of sustainable aviation fuels can be introduced at EU airports without detrimental effects on the competitiveness of the EU aviation internal market.

Link

FuelEU Maritime (proposal)

The FuelEU Maritime Initiative proposes a common EU regulatory framework to increase the share of renewable and low-carbon fuels in the fuel mix of international maritime transport without creating barriers to the single market.

Title

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the use of renewable and low-carbon fuels in maritime transport and amending Directive 2009/16/EC

Type

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

COM/2021/562 final

Adoption date

14 July 2021

Entry into force

from 1 January 2025

Scope and objectives

The FuelEU Maritime Initiative proposes a common EU regulatory framework to increase the share of renewable and low-carbon fuels in the fuel mix of international maritime transport without creating barriers to the single market.
The Regulation lays down uniform rules imposing:
(i) the limit on the greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of energy used on board by a ship arriving at, staying within or departing from ports under the jurisdiction of a Member State;
(ii) the obligation to use on-shore power supply or zero-emission technology in ports under the jurisdiction of a Member State.
It applies to all ships above a gross tonnage of 5 000, regardless of their flag.

Link
Latest news

At the Transport Council meeting on 9 December 2021, Ministers stressed the importance of the global dimension, the complexity of the proposal and its strong link with other ‘Fit for 55’ initiatives (mainly the Renewable Energy Directive, the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) and the rules on alternative fuels infrastructure). They wanted to have a clear view of their overall impact on the sector. Some expressed concerns about governance aspects.
On 2 February 2022, the Transport and Tourism (TRAN) Committee held a first debate on the proposal. The presentation of the draft report is expected in April, the vote in TRAN is scheduled for July and a vote in the EP Plenary could take place in September 2022.

Proposal for an Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation

In the context of the ‘Fit for 55’ package, the European Commission proposed a new Regulation for the deployment of an alternative fuels infrastructure. If adopted, the new Regulation will repeal Directive 2014/94/EU.

Title

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, and repealing Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council

Type

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

COM/2021/559 final

Adoption date

14 July 2021

Entry into force

On the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union

Scope and objectives

In the context of the ‘Fit for 55’ package, the European Commission proposed a new Regulation for the deployment of an alternative fuels infrastructure. If adopted, the new Regulation will repeal Directive 2014/94/EU.
The specific objectives of the proposed Regulation are: (i) to ensure minimum infrastructure to support the required uptake of alternative fuel vehicles across all transport modes and in all EU Member States to meet the EU’s climate objectives; (ii) to ensure full interoperability of the infrastructure; and (iii) to ensure comprehensive user information and adequate payment options at alternative fuels infrastructure.

Link

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2021/1444 under AFID

This regulation states that the recharging points for electric buses referred to in point 1.6 of Annex II to Directive 2014/94/EU shall be equipped, for interoperability purposes,

Title

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2021/1444 of 17 June 2021 supplementing Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regards standards for recharging points for electric buses

Type

Commission Delegated Regulation

Reference

C/2021/4257
OJ L 313, 6.9.2021, p. 1–3

Adoption date

17 June 2021

Entry into force

26 September 2021

Scope and objectives

This regulation states that the recharging points for electric buses referred to in point 1.6 of Annex II to Directive 2014/94/EU shall be equipped, for interoperability purposes, as follows:
• alternating current (AC) normal and high-power recharging points for electric buses shall be equipped at least with connectors of Type 2 as described in standard EN 62196-2;
• direct current (DC) normal and high-power recharging points for electric buses shall be equipped at least with connectors of the combined charging system ‘Combo 2’ as described in standard EN 62196-3;
• contact interface automated device for electric buses on conductive recharging in mode 4, according to EN 61851-23-1, concerning automated connection device (ACD) mounted on the infrastructure (pantograph), ACD mounted on the roof of the vehicle, ACD mounted underneath the vehicle and ACD mounted on the infrastructure and connecting to the side or on the roof of the vehicle, shall be equipped with mechanical and electrical interfaces, as defined in the standard EN 50696.

Link

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/732 and 2020/858 under AFID

This regulation sets out a common methodology concerning alternative fuels as defined in Article 2(1) of Directive 2014/94/EU. The methodology provides, for the purposes of displays at fuel stations as referred to in the first subparagraph of Article 7(3) of Directive 2014/94/EU, the basic calculation allowing an indicative comparison of prices, based on samples of passenger car models that are established by Member States and that are comparable at least in view of their weight and their power, but use different fuels. The methodology defines how, for the purposes of such comparison, prices of petrol and diesel and alternative fuels are expressed as amounts of applicable currency per 100 km.

Title

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/732 of 17 May 2018 on a common methodology for alternative fuels unit price comparison in accordance with Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, and Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/858 of 18 June 2020 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/732 as regards postponing its date of application

Type

Commission Implementing Regulation

Reference

OJ L 123, 18.5.2018, p. 85–88
OJ L 195, 19.6.2020, p. 57–58 (amendment)

Adoption date

17 May 2017 and 18 June 2020 (amendment)

Entry into force

7 June 2018 and 20 June 2020 (amendment)

Scope and objectives

This regulation sets out a common methodology concerning alternative fuels as defined in Article 2(1) of Directive 2014/94/EU. The methodology provides, for the purposes of displays at fuel stations as referred to in the first subparagraph of Article 7(3) of Directive 2014/94/EU, the basic calculation allowing an indicative comparison of prices, based on samples of passenger car models that are established by Member States and that are comparable at least in view of their weight and their power, but use different fuels. The methodology defines how, for the purposes of such comparison, prices of petrol and diesel and alternative fuels are expressed as amounts of applicable currency per 100 km.
Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/858 amended Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/732 by postponing the implementation date to 7 December 2020.

Link
Latest news

Effective in Member States; see [add reference to EAFO page on Fuel Price Comparison]

Standardisation mandate alternative fuels infrastructure

The Flagship Initiative ‘Resource efficient Europe’ of the Europe 2020 Strategy proposed to modernise and decarbonise the transport sector, thereby contributing to increased competitiveness. In line with this strategy, the 2011 Transport White Paper called for breaking the oil dependence of transport and sets a target of 60 % greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction from transport by 2050. The European Commission adopted, on 24 January 2013, the ‘Clean Power for Transport Package’ (CPT). The CPT included the proposal for a Directive on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, later adopted as Directive 2014/94/EU. The Commission’s standardisation request aims to ensure that technical specifications for interoperability of recharging and refuelling points are specified in European standards compatible with the relevant international standards. It identifies the required technical specifications as well as the deadlines for their availability, taking into account existing European standards and related international standardisation activities.

Title

Commission Implementing Decision C(2015) 1330 of 12.3.2015 on a standardisation request addressed to the European standardisation organisations, in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 1025/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council, to draft European standards for alternative fuels infrastructure

Type

Commission Implementing Decision

Reference

M/533

Adoption date

12 March 2015

Scope and objectives

The Flagship Initiative ‘Resource efficient Europe’ of the Europe 2020 Strategy proposed to modernise and decarbonise the transport sector, thereby contributing to increased competitiveness. In line with this strategy, the 2011 Transport White Paper called for breaking the oil dependence of transport and sets a target of 60 % greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction from transport by 2050. The European Commission adopted, on 24 January 2013, the ‘Clean Power for Transport Package’ (CPT). The CPT included the proposal for a Directive on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, later adopted as Directive 2014/94/EU. The Commission’s standardisation request aims to ensure that technical specifications for interoperability of recharging and refuelling points are specified in European standards compatible with the relevant international standards. It identifies the required technical specifications as well as the deadlines for their availability, taking into account existing European standards and related international standardisation activities.

Link

Directive on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure

The Directive establishes a common framework of measures for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in the Union to minimise dependence on oil and to mitigate the environmental impact of transport. It sets out minimum requirements for the building-up of alternative fuels infrastructure, including recharging points for electric vehicles and refuelling points for natural gas (liquid natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG)) and hydrogen, to be implemented by means of Member States' national policy frameworks, as well as common technical specifications for such recharging and refuelling points, and user information requirements. A summary can be found here.

Title

Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure

Type

Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure

Reference

OJ L 307, 28.10.2014, p. 1–20

Adoption date

22 October 2014

Entry into force

17 November 2014

Scope and objectives

The Directive establishes a common framework of measures for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in the Union to minimise dependence on oil and to mitigate the environmental impact of transport. It sets out minimum requirements for the building-up of alternative fuels infrastructure, including recharging points for electric vehicles and refuelling points for natural gas (liquid natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG)) and hydrogen, to be implemented by means of Member States' national policy frameworks, as well as common technical specifications for such recharging and refuelling points, and user information requirements. A summary can be found here. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/LSU/?uri=CELEX:32014L0094

Link
Latest news

Amended by Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/1745 of 13 August 2019, supplementing and amending Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards recharging points for L-category motor vehicles, shore-side electricity supply for inland waterway vessels, hydrogen supply for road transport and natural gas supply for road and waterborne transport and repealing Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2018/674 (OJ L 268, 22.10.2019, p. 1–5) and by Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2021/1444 of 17 June 2021 supplementing Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards standards for recharging points for electric buses (OJ L 313, 6.9.2021, p. 1–3)
A proposal to repeal the Directive has been adopted on 14 July 2021, to replace it with an Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation (AFIR). More info here. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/ALL/?uri=CELEX:52021PC0559

Strategic Rollout plan

The Strategic Rollout Plan was published alongside the Commission’s proposal for a new Regulation on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, as part of the ‘Fit for 55’ Package and outlines a set of supplementary actions to support the rapid rollout of alternative fuels infrastructure.

Title

A strategic rollout plan to outline a set of supplementary actions to support the rapid deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure

Type

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions

Reference

COM/2021/560 final

Adoption date

14 July 2021

Scope and objectives

The Strategic Rollout Plan was published alongside the Commission’s proposal for a new Regulation on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, as part of the ‘Fit for 55’ Package and outlines a set of supplementary actions to support the rapid rollout of alternative fuels infrastructure. To this end, it focusses on five key objectives:
(i) better plan, permit and procurement for alternative fuels infrastructure;
(ii) make best use of national recovery and resilience planning;
(iii) reinforce and better target funding at EU level, attract private investment and increase capacity;
(iv) identify outstanding technological challenges and accelerate standardisation;
(v) develop a data and governance framework to make the electromobility ecosystem work effectively.

Link

COM assessment of MS National Implementation Reports (NIRs)

According to Art. 10(1) of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive, each Member State shall submit to the European Commission a report on the implementation of its NPF on a tri-annual basis, and for the first time, by or before 18 November 2019. Those reports must contain a description of the measures taken in the reporting Member State in support of alternative fuels infrastructure build-up. The Commission is under an obligation to review those National Implementation Reports (NIRs) and report on progress to the European Parliament and to the Council.

The present Commission Staff Working Document responds to the above request of the Directive. It covers 25 Member States instead of 28, because Italy, Portugal and UK did not deliver their NIRs within the latest possible deadline agreed between the Commission and the Member States.

Title

Detailed Assessment of the Member States’ Implementation Reports on the National Policy Frameworks for the development of the market as regards alternative fuels in the transport sector and the deployment of the relevant infrastructure. Implementation of Art 10 (3) of Directive 2014/94/EU Accompanying the document REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL on the application of Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure

Type

Commission Staff Working Document

Reference

SWD/2021/49 final

Adoption date

8 March 2021

Scope and objectives

According to Art. 10(1) of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive, each Member State shall submit to the European Commission a report on the implementation of its NPF on a tri-annual basis, and for the first time, by or before 18 November 2019. Those reports must contain a description of the measures taken in the reporting Member State in support of alternative fuels infrastructure build-up. The Commission is under an obligation to review those National Implementation Reports (NIRs) and report on progress to the European Parliament and to the Council.
The present Commission Staff Working Document responds to the above request of the Directive. It covers 25 Member States instead of 28, because Italy, Portugal and UK did not deliver their NIRs within the latest possible deadline agreed between the Commission and the Member States.

Link
Latest news

An updated assessment report will be made available very soon, covering the missing Member States - SWD(2022)33

COM assessment of MS National Policy Frameworks (NPFs)

Directive 2014/94/EU requires Member States to notify the European Commission National Policy Frameworks (NPFs) of the development of the market as regards alternative fuels in the transport sector and the deployment of the relevant infrastructure. To implement Article 10.2 of the Directive, the Commission carried out an assessment of the NPFs and their coherence at Union level, including an evaluation of the level of attainment of the national targets and objectives referred to in Article 3 (1) of the Directive. 

Title

Report on the Assessment of the Member States’ National Policy Frameworks for the development of the market as regards alternative fuels in the transport sector and the deployment of the relevant infrastructure pursuant to Article 10 (2) of Directive 2014/94/EU

Type

Commission Staff Working Document

Reference

SWD(2019)29

Adoption date

13 February 2019

Scope and objectives

Directive 2014/94/EU requires Member States to notify the European Commission National Policy Frameworks (NPFs) of the development of the market as regards alternative fuels in the transport sector and the deployment of the relevant infrastructure. To implement Article 10.2 of the Directive, the Commission carried out an assessment of the NPFs and their coherence at Union level, including an evaluation of the level of attainment of the national targets and objectives referred to in Article 3 (1) of the Directive.
Part 4 contains a summary overview (Member State fiches) with the main results of the assessment for each of the Member States’ NPFs.

Link

Clean Power for Transport (CPT)

The CPT Package aims to facilitate the development of a single market for alternative fuels for transport in Europe. It requires Member States to develop national policy frameworks for the market development of alternative fuels and their infrastructure. The communication proposes the use of common technical specifications for recharging and refuelling stations.

Title

Clean Power for Transport: A European alternative fuels strategy

Type

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions

Reference

COM/2013/017 final

Adoption date

24 January 2013

Scope and objectives

The CPT Package aims to facilitate the development of a single market for alternative fuels for transport in Europe. It requires Member States to develop national policy frameworks for the market development of alternative fuels and their infrastructure. The communication proposes the use of common technical specifications for recharging and refuelling stations.

Link

Vehicle emissions

Proposal for a Euro 7 Regulation

This initiative, which is part of the European Green Deal, will develop stricter emissions standards (Euro 7) for all petrol and diesel cars, vans, lorries and buses. To ensure vehicles on EU roads are clean over their lifetime, the proposed rules will consider new vehicle technologies and ensure emissions are measured in real time. This initiative is part of the EU’s commitment to accelerate the shift to sustainable and smart mobility.

Published in March 2020.

Title

European vehicle emissions standards – Euro 7 for cars, vans, lorries and buses

Type

Proposal for a Commission Regulation

Scope and objectives

This initiative, which is part of the European Green Deal, will develop stricter emissions standards (Euro 7) for all petrol and diesel cars, vans, lorries and buses. To ensure vehicles on EU roads are clean over their lifetime, the proposed rules will consider new vehicle technologies and ensure emissions are measured in real time. This initiative is part of the EU’s commitment to accelerate the shift to sustainable and smart mobility.
Published in March 2020.

Link
Latest news

Public consultation closed, adoption of Commission proposal is upcoming.

Proposal for strengthening the CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and vans

This proposal has been tabled as part of the ‘Fit for 55’ Package, with a view to strengthening the CO2 emission standards for new passenger cars and vans, to accelerate the decarbonisation of road transport. In particular, the proposal aims to contribute to achieving climate neutrality by 2050 and to this end, in line with the European Climate Law, to contribute to reaching at least 55 % net greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2030 compared to 1990.

Title

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulation (EU) 2019/631 as regards strengthening the CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and new light commercial vehicles in line with the Union’s increased climate ambition

Type

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

COM/2021/556 final

Adoption date

14 July 2021

Scope and objectives

This proposal has been tabled as part of the ‘Fit for 55’ Package, with a view to strengthening the CO2 emission standards for new passenger cars and vans, to accelerate the decarbonisation of road transport. In particular, the proposal aims to contribute to achieving climate neutrality by 2050 and to this end, in line with the European Climate Law, to contribute to reaching at least 55 % net greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2030 compared to 1990.
The proposal serves three specific objectives. The first is to contribute to the 2030 and 2050 climate objectives by reducing CO2 emissions from cars and light commercial vehicles. The second specific objective is to provide benefits to consumers and citizens from a wider deployment of zero-emission vehicles. The key expected benefits concern not only improved air quality, particularly in cities, but also more access for consumers to more affordable zero-emission vehicle models and significant energy savings from the use of zero-emission vehicles, hence decreasing the total cost of ownership of such vehicles. The third specific objective is to stimulate innovation in zero-emission technologies, thus strengthening the technological leadership of the automotive value chain and stimulating employment in the EU.

Link
Latest news

Ordinary legislative procedure (COD) status is ongoing.

Regulation setting CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and vans

The Regulation sets EU fleet-wide CO2 emission targets applying from 2020, 2025 and 2030 and includes a mechanism to incentivise the uptake of zero- and low-emission vehicles. The annual specific emission targets of each manufacturer will be based on these EU fleet-wide targets, taking into account the average test mass of its newly registered vehicles.

For the period 2020-2024, Regulation (EU) 2019/631 confirms the EU fleet-wide CO2 emission targets set under Regulations (EC) No 443/2009 and (EU) No 510/2011.

  • Cars: 95 g CO2/km
  • Vans: 147 g CO2/km
Title

Regulation (EU) 2019/631 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2019 setting CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and for new light commercial vehicles, and repealing Regulations (EC) No 443/2009 and (EU) No 510/2011

Type

Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

OJ L 111 25.4.2019, p. 13

Adoption date

17 April 2019

Entry into force

15 May 2019

Scope and objectives

The Regulation sets EU fleet-wide CO2 emission targets applying from 2020, 2025 and 2030 and includes a mechanism to incentivise the uptake of zero- and low-emission vehicles. The annual specific emission targets of each manufacturer will be based on these EU fleet-wide targets, taking into account the average test mass of its newly registered vehicles.
For the period 2020-2024, Regulation (EU) 2019/631 confirms the EU fleet-wide CO2 emission targets set under Regulations (EC) No 443/2009 and (EU) No 510/2011.
• Cars: 95 g CO2/km
• Vans: 147 g CO2/km

Starting in the years 2025 and 2030, Regulation (EU) 2019/631 sets stricter EU fleet-wide CO2 emission targets, which are defined as a percentage reduction from the 2021 starting points.
• Cars: 15 % reduction from 2025 onwards and 37.5 % reduction from 2030 onwards;
• Vans: 15 % reduction from 2025 onwards and 31 % reduction from 2030 onwards.

In the years from 2020 to 2022, a super-credits system applies for passenger cars with emissions of less than 50 g CO2/km (New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)). These vehicles are counted multiple times for the calculation of the average specific emissions of a manufacturer. No super-credits system is in place for vans. From 2025, a different ZLEV (vehicles with emissions between 0 and 50 g CO2/km (world harmonised light-duty vehicles test procedure (WLTP)) crediting system is introduced both for car and van manufacturers. It allows for the relaxation of a manufacturer’s specific emission target, if its share of new ZLEVs registered in a given year exceeds the following benchmarks:
• Cars: 15 % ZLEV from 2025 onwards and 35 % ZLEV from 2030 onwards;
• Vans: 15 % ZLEV from 2025 onwards and 30 % ZLEV from 2030 onwards.

If the average CO2 emissions of a manufacturer's fleet exceed its specific emission target in a given year, the manufacturer has to pay – for each of its vehicles newly registered in that year – an excess emissions premium of EUR 95 per g/km of target exceedance.

Link

Vehicle Type approval Regulation

The Regulation aims to strengthen the role of the European Union in the automotive sector, which is still largely the responsibility of national regulatory authorities, by increasing the quality of vehicle approval and increasing checks on vehicles already in circulation.

Title

Regulation (EU) 2018/858 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 on the approval and market surveillance of motor vehicles and their trailers, and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles, amending Regulations (EC) No 715/2007 and (EC) No 595/2009 and repealing Directive 2007/46/EC

Type

Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

OJ L 151 14.6.2018, p. 1

Adoption date

30 May 2018

Entry into force

4 July 2018
(1 September 2020)

Scope and objectives

The Regulation aims to strengthen the role of the European Union in the automotive sector, which is still largely the responsibility of national regulatory authorities, by increasing the quality of vehicle approval and increasing checks on vehicles already in circulation.

The new rules were proposed by the European Commission in the wake of the Dieselgate scandal. The Commission was already reviewing the EU type-approval framework for motor vehicles prior to the Volkswagen revelations. It has since concluded that there is a need for more far-reaching reform to prevent cases of non-compliance from happening again. The Regulation should help to achieve three objectives:

• reinforce the independence and quality of testing that allows a car to be placed on the market;
• introduce an effective market surveillance system to control the conformity of cars already in circulation;
• reinforce the type-approval system with greater European oversight.

The Regulation will make vehicle testing more independent and increase surveillance of cars already in circulation. Greater European oversight will strengthen the system as a whole.

Link
Latest news

Amended by Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2021/1445 of 23 June 2021 amending Annexes II and VII to Regulation (EU) 2018/858 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 313, 6.9.2021, p. 4–8), Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2021/1244 of 20 May 2021 amending Annex X to Regulation (EU) 2018/858 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the standardised access to vehicle on-board diagnostics information and repair and maintenance information, and the requirements and procedures for access to vehicle security information (OJ L 272, 30.7.2021, p. 16–28) and Regulation (EU) 2019/2144 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 November 2019 on type-approval requirements for motor vehicles and their trailers, and systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles, as regards their general safety and the protection of vehicle occupants and vulnerable road users, amending Regulation (EU) 2018/858 of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Regulations (EC) No 78/2009, (EC) No 79/2009 and (EC) No 661/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulations (EC) No 631/2009, (EU) No 406/2010, (EU) No 672/2010, (EU) No 1003/2010, (EU) No 1005/2010, (EU) No 1008/2010, (EU) No 1009/2010, (EU) No 19/2011, (EU) No 109/2011, (EU) No 458/2011, (EU) No 65/2012, (EU) No 130/2012, (EU) No 347/2012, (EU) No 351/2012, (EU) No 1230/2012 and (EU) 2015/166 (OJ L 325, 16.12.2019, p. 1–40).

Real Driving Emissions Testing Regulation

This Regulation supplements and sets out rules and procedures to implement Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 through a variety of tests designed to check emissions of light-duty vehicles. It also sets the first ever regulated procedure for checking Real Driving Emissions (RDE). Lastly, it incorporates Worldwide harmonised Light-duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) developed in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) into EU law. To receive an EU type-approval with regard to emissions, vehicle repair and maintenance information the manufacturer must show that the vehicle complies with the requirements set out in this Regulation when tested under the specified procedures.

Title

Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 of 1 June 2017 supplementing Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 and Commission Regulation (EU) No 1230/2012 and repealing Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008

Type

Commission Regulation

Reference

OJ L 175, 7.7.2017, p. 1–643

Adoption date

1 June 2017

Entry into force

27 July 2017

Scope and objectives

This Regulation supplements and sets out rules and procedures to implement Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 through a variety of tests designed to check emissions of light-duty vehicles. It also sets the first ever regulated procedure for checking Real Driving Emissions (RDE). Lastly, it incorporates Worldwide harmonised Light-duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) developed in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) into EU law. To receive an EU type-approval with regard to emissions, vehicle repair and maintenance information the manufacturer must show that the vehicle complies with the requirements set out in this Regulation when tested under the specified procedures.
All vehicles must respect the tailpipe (exhaust pipe) emission limits set out in Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 when tested in RDE and WLTP tests, and also a series of other tests that include checking for evaporative emissions (i.e. emissions originating from the fuel tank), or checking at low ambient temperatures.
On-board diagnostics (OBD) systems must be installed on all vehicles to identify all forms of deterioration or malfunction over the lifetime of the vehicle – the regulation sets out requirements for the OBD system during normal use.
Manufacturers must install devices to continuously measure the quantity of fuel/energy used to operate the vehicle.

Link

Euro 6 Regulation

To receive an EC type approval with regard to emissions and vehicle repair and maintenance information, the manufacturer will demonstrate that the vehicles comply with the requirements of this Regulation when tested in accordance with the test procedures. Vehicles will be subject to the tests specified in Figure I.2.4 of Annex I.

Published in June 2017.

Title

Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 of 1 June 2017 supplementing Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type-approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 and Commission Regulation (EU) No 1230/2012 and repealing Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 (Text with EEA relevance)

Type

Commission Regulation

Reference

OJ L 175, 7.7.2017, p. 1–643

Adoption date

1 June 2017

Entry into force

27 July 2017

Scope and objectives

To receive an EC type approval with regard to emissions and vehicle repair and maintenance information, the manufacturer will demonstrate that the vehicles comply with the requirements of this Regulation when tested in accordance with the test procedures. Vehicles will be subject to the tests specified in Figure I.2.4 of Annex I.
Published in June 2017.

Link
Latest news

Amended by Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1154 of 7 June 2017 amending Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 supplementing Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 and Commission Regulation (EU) No 1230/2012 and repealing Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 and Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards real-driving emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 6) (OJ L 175, 7.7.2017, p. 708–732), Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1347 of 13 July 2017 correcting Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Regulation (EU) No 582/2011 and Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 supplementing Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 and Commission Regulation (EU) No 1230/2012 and repealing Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 (OJ L 192, 24.7.2017, p. 1–22) and Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/1832 of 5 November 2018 amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 and Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 for the purpose of improving the emission type-approval tests and procedures for light passenger and commercial vehicles, including those for in-service conformity and real-driving emissions and introducing devices for monitoring the consumption of fuel and electric energy (OJ L 301, 27.11.2018, p. 1–314).

Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy

The EU Strategy for Sustainable and Smart Mobility (SSMS) was announced by the European Commission in its Green Deal Communication. The SSMS aims to contribute to the achievement of the EU Green Deal target of reducing transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 90 % by 2050. It puts in place key milestones for all modes of transport, most notably that at least 30 million zero-emission cars should be in operation on European roads by 2030. 

Title

Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy – putting European transport on track for the future

Type

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions

Reference

COM/2020/789 final

Adoption date

9 December 2020

Scope and objectives

The EU Strategy for Sustainable and Smart Mobility (SSMS) was announced by the European Commission in its Green Deal Communication. The SSMS aims to contribute to the achievement of the EU Green Deal target of reducing transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 90 % by 2050. It puts in place key milestones for all modes of transport, most notably that at least 30 million zero-emission cars should be in operation on European roads by 2030. The SSMS is structured around three key objectives:
• sustainable mobility: involving an irreversible shift to zero-emission mobility;
• smart mobility: supporting sustainable choices by taking advantage of digitalisation and automation; resilient mobility: creating a Single European Transport Area that is affordable, accessible, and resilient against future crises and safety and security challenges.

Link

A European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility

The Strategy integrates a broader set of measures to support Europe’s transition to a low-carbon economy and supports jobs, growth, investment and innovation. The Communication identifies three priority areas for action: (i) increasing the efficiency of the transport system, (ii) speeding up the deployment of low-emission alternative energy for transport, (iii) moving towards zero-emission vehicles. 

Title

A European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility

Type

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions

Reference

COM/2016/0501 final

Adoption date

20 July 2016

Scope and objectives

The Strategy integrates a broader set of measures to support Europe’s transition to a low-carbon economy and supports jobs, growth, investment and innovation. The Communication identifies three priority areas for action: (i) increasing the efficiency of the transport system, (ii) speeding up the deployment of low-emission alternative energy for transport, (iii) moving towards zero-emission vehicles.

Link

Other

Revision of Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/962 under ITS Directive

As part of the ITS Directive revision, a review of Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/96214 on the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information service is currently ongoing. That upcoming revision is expected to identify crucial data types and introduce certain new crucial data types related to traffic regulations: (i) weight/length/width/height restrictions; (ii) one-way streets; and (iii) boundaries of restrictions, prohibitions or obligations with zonal validity, current access status and conditions for circulation in regulated traffic zones. This proposal is consistent with the expected changes to the delegated act. Additionally, because of the importance of those three additional data points, once the new delegated act has been adopted, it will be appropriate to consider their inclusion in the list of the data types whose availability and provision is to be made mandatory.

Title and reference

Commission Delegated Regulation supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services

Type

Commission Delegated Regulation

Reference

To be published (currently under draft)

Entry into force

1 January 2025

Scope and objectives

As part of the ITS Directive revision, a review of Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/96214 on the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information service is currently ongoing. That upcoming revision is expected to identify crucial data types and introduce certain new crucial data types related to traffic regulations: (i) weight/length/width/height restrictions; (ii) one-way streets; and (iii) boundaries of restrictions, prohibitions or obligations with zonal validity, current access status and conditions for circulation in regulated traffic zones. This proposal is consistent with the expected changes to the delegated act. Additionally, because of the importance of those three additional data points, once the new delegated act has been adopted, it will be appropriate to consider their inclusion in the list of the data types whose availability and provision is to be made mandatory.
Delegated Regulation (EU) No 2015/962 is proposed to be repealed from 1 January 2025.

Link

Proposal for a revision of the TEN-T Regulation

The Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) policy develops a Europe-wide network of railway lines, roads, inland waterways, maritime shipping routes, ports, airports and railroad terminals. The ultimate objective is to close gaps, remove bottlenecks and technical barriers, as well as to strengthen social, economic and territorial cohesion in the EU. The current TEN-T policy is based on Regulation (EU) No 1315/2013. Through several revisions, the policy has coped with growing transport demand, several EU enlargements and evolving transport policy challenges (e.g. liberalisation, standardisation, technological innovation).

Title

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on Union guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network, amending Regulation (EU) 2021/1153 and Regulation (EU) No 913/2010 and repealing Regulation (EU) 1315/2013

Type

Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

COM/2021/812 final

Adoption date

14 December 2021

Scope and objectives

The Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) policy develops a Europe-wide network of railway lines, roads, inland waterways, maritime shipping routes, ports, airports and railroad terminals. The ultimate objective is to close gaps, remove bottlenecks and technical barriers, as well as to strengthen social, economic and territorial cohesion in the EU. The current TEN-T policy is based on Regulation (EU) No 1315/2013. Through several revisions, the policy has coped with growing transport demand, several EU enlargements and evolving transport policy challenges (e.g. liberalisation, standardisation, technological innovation).

The Commission started the current TEN-T review process in April 2019 with an evaluation of the existing TEN-T Regulation together with an Open Public Consultation. This consultation took place between April and July 2019.

On 14 December 2021, it published the revised proposal.

Link

Proposal for a revision of the ITS Directive

Proposal for a Directive amending Directive 2010/40/EU on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport

Title and reference

Proposal for a Directive amending Directive 2010/40/EU on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport

Type

Proposal

Reference

COM (2021) 813

Adoption date

14 December 2021

Scope and objectives

Legislative initiative tabled by the European Commission on 14 December 2021, introducing amendments to Directive 2010/40/EU on the framework for the deployment of ITS in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport.
The Commission carried out an ex-post evaluation of the ITS Directive that concluded that the Directive has had a positive impact on the deployment of ITS across the EU. The evaluation also concluded that the Directive remains a relevant tool to address: (i) a lack of coordination in ITS deployment across the EU; and (ii) the slow, risky and cost-ineffective deployment of ITS. The evaluation further noted that the use of ITS is increasing but despite improvements, the deployment of ITS is still often limited in geographical scope. There remains a clear need to take further action on interoperability, cooperation, and data sharing to enable seamless and continuous ITS services across the EU.
In October 2019, the Commission also released a report to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of the ITS Directive. This report highlighted: (i) the need to further improve coordination in accessibility of data; (ii) the need to take into account the emergence of new ITS themes and challenges; and (iii) the need to improve the availability of key data types on the whole road transport network (i.e. by making these data types available in digital machine-readable format).
This proposal addresses the following problems: (i) the lack of interoperability and lack of continuity of applications, systems and services; (ii) the lack of concertation and effective cooperation among stakeholders; and (iii) unresolved issues related to the availability and sharing of data supporting ITS services. It achieves this notably by expanding the current scope of the Directive to cover new and emerging challenges, and by allowing essential ITS services to be made mandatory across the EU. The deployment of ITS services will be fed by the availability of data necessary to provide reliable information, thus ensuring that the benefits of digitalisation in the road sector can be reaped. Additional rules to improve alignment with current practices and standards will also address the problems referred to above.

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Taxonomy Regulation

To meet the EU’s climate and energy targets for 2030 and reach the objectives of the European Green Deal, it is vital that investments are directed towards sustainable projects and activities. The current COVID-19 pandemic has reinforced the need to redirect money towards sustainable projects to make EU economies, businesses and societies – in particular health systems more resilient against climate and environmental shocks.

Title

Regulation (EU) 2020/852 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2020 on the establishment of a framework to facilitate sustainable investment, and amending Regulation (EU) 2019/2088

Type

Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

PE/20/2020/INIT
OJ L 198, 22.6.2020, p. 13–43

Adoption date

18 June 2020

Entry into force

12 July 2020

Scope and objectives

To meet the EU’s climate and energy targets for 2030 and reach the objectives of the European Green Deal, it is vital that investments are directed towards sustainable projects and activities. The current COVID-19 pandemic has reinforced the need to redirect money towards sustainable projects to make EU economies, businesses and societies – in particular health systems more resilient against climate and environmental shocks.

Given the range of interpretations by different Member States as to what counts as a 'sustainable' investment, the European Commission considered that a common taxonomy was needed. The EU developed a set of regulatory reporting requirements that all EU funds with a sustainability objective must comply with. Therefore, the EU taxonomy established a classification system, which provides businesses with a common language to identify whether a given economic activity should be considered ‘environmentally sustainable’ or ‘green’ -i.e., electromobility.

The classification system could play an important role in helping the EU scale up sustainable investment and implement the European Green Deal. The EU taxonomy should create security for investors, protect private investors from greenwashing, help companies to become more climate-friendly, mitigate market fragmentation and help shift investments where they are most needed.

Appropriate technical screening criteria should be established for the transport sector, including for mobile assets. Those screening criteria should take into account the fact that the transport sector, including international shipping, contributes close to 26 % of total GHG emissions in the Union.

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Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2017/1926 under ITS Directive (MMTIS)

This Regulation establishes the necessary specifications to ensure that EU-wide multimodal travel information services are accurate and available across borders to ITS users. It applies to the entire transport network of the Union.

Title and reference

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2017/1926 of 31 May 2017 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the provision of EU-wide multimodal travel information services (Text with EEA relevance. )

Type

Commission Delegated Regulation

Reference

C/2017/3574

OJ L 272, 21.10.2017, p. 1–13

Adoption date

31 May 2017

Entry into force

10 November 2017

Scope and objectives

This Regulation establishes the necessary specifications to ensure that EU-wide multimodal travel information services are accurate and available across borders to ITS users. It applies to the entire transport network of the Union.

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Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/962 under ITS Directive (RTTI)

This Regulation establishes the specifications necessary to ensure the accessibility, exchange, re-use and update of road and traffic data by road authorities, road operators and service providers for the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services. It applies to the comprehensive trans-European road network, as well as motorways not included in this network, and priority zones identified by national authorities where they consider this to be relevant.

Title and reference

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/962 of 18 December 2014 supplementing Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services

Type

Commission Delegated Regulation

Reference

OJ L 157, 23.6.2015, p. 21–31

Adoption date

13 July 2015

Entry into force

13 July 2017

Scope and objectives

This Regulation establishes the specifications necessary to ensure the accessibility, exchange, re-use and update of road and traffic data by road authorities, road operators and service providers for the provision of EU-wide real-time traffic information services. It applies to the comprehensive trans-European road network, as well as motorways not included in this network, and priority zones identified by national authorities where they consider this to be relevant.

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Latest news

Currently under revision as part of the Sustainable & Smart mobility Strategy of the European Commission

TEN-T Regulation

The Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) policy develops a Europe-wide network of railway lines, roads, inland waterways, maritime shipping routes, ports, airports and railroad terminals. The ultimate objective is to close gaps, remove bottlenecks and technical barriers, as well as to strengthen social, economic and territorial cohesion in the EU. Through several revisions, the policy has coped with growing transport demand, several EU enlargements and evolving transport policy challenges (e.g. liberalisation, standardisation, technological innovation).

Title

Regulation (EU) No 1315/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 on Union guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network and repealing Decision No 661/2010/EU

Type

Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

OJ L 348, 20.12.2013, p. 1–128

Adoption date

11 December 2013

Entry into force

21 December 2013

Scope and objectives

The Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) policy develops a Europe-wide network of railway lines, roads, inland waterways, maritime shipping routes, ports, airports and railroad terminals. The ultimate objective is to close gaps, remove bottlenecks and technical barriers, as well as to strengthen social, economic and territorial cohesion in the EU. Through several revisions, the policy has coped with growing transport demand, several EU enlargements and evolving transport policy challenges (e.g. liberalisation, standardisation, technological innovation).

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Latest news

Amended by Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No 473/2014 of 17 January 2014 amending Regulation (EU) No 1315/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards supplementing Annex III thereto with new indicative maps (OJ L 136, 9.5.2014, p. 10–18), Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/758 of 4 February 2016 amending Regulation (EU) No 1315/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards adapting Annex III thereto (C/2016/0536, OJ L 126, 14.5.2016, p. 3–12) and Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/254 of 9 November 2018 on the adaptation of Annex III to Regulation (EU) No 1315/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Union guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network (C/2018/7375, OJ L 43, 14.2.2019, p. 1–14)

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) Directive

This Directive establishes a framework in support of the coordinated and coherent deployment and use of ITS within the Union, in particular across the borders between the Member States, and sets out the general conditions necessary for that purpose.

Title and reference

Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2010 on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport

Type

Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council

Reference

OJ L 207, 6.8.2010, p. 1–13

Adoption date

7 July 2010

Entry into force

26 August 2010

Scope and objectives

This Directive establishes a framework in support of the coordinated and coherent deployment and use of ITS within the Union, in particular across the borders between the Member States, and sets out the general conditions necessary for that purpose.
The ITS Directive creates the legal framework for making available certain static and dynamic road and traffic data, including some static and dynamic data regarding alternative fuels infrastructure.

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Latest news

Amended by Decision (EU) 2017/2380 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2017 amending Directive 2010/40/EU as regards the period for adopting delegated acts (OJ L 340, 20.12.2017, p. 1–3)

Energy Taxation Directive

The Energy Taxation Directive (2003/96/EC) – commonly known as the ETD – is the European Union’s framework for the taxation of energy products including electricity, motor and most heating fuels. As well as setting out structural rules to avoid potential distortions of competition across the EU, the ETD sets minimum rates of excise duty with the intention of encouraging a low-carbon and energy-efficient economy. Member States design their own taxes within the framework of the ETD and can determine domestic rates if they meet the ETD minimum. 

Title

Council Directive 2003/96/EC of 27 October 2003 restructuring the Community framework for the taxation of energy products and electricity

Type

Type Directive of the Council

Reference

OJ L 283, 31.10.2003, p. 51–70

Adoption date

27 October 2003

Entry into force

31 October 2003

Scope and objectives

The Energy Taxation Directive (2003/96/EC) – commonly known as the ETD – is the European Union’s framework for the taxation of energy products including electricity, motor and most heating fuels. As well as setting out structural rules to avoid potential distortions of competition across the EU, the ETD sets minimum rates of excise duty with the intention of encouraging a low-carbon and energy-efficient economy. Member States design their own taxes within the framework of the ETD and can determine domestic rates if they meet the ETD minimum.

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Latest news

The revision of the ETD is part of the 'Fit for 55' Package of legislative proposals, with a view to achieving climate neutrality in the EU by 2050, including the 2030 target of net reduction of GHG emissions by at least 55 %.

European Commission support study on vehicle life-cycle assessments

Transport is an important contributor to several environmental issues, including air pollution and climate change. The EU has set challenging objectives for tackling these. To help support decision making on mitigating actions in the transport sector it is paramount to develop a better understanding of the environmental impacts of road vehicles over their entire lifecycle.

Title

Determining the environmental impacts of conventional and alternatively fuelled vehicles through LCA : final report

Type

Report for the European Commission

Authors

Hill, N., Amaral, S., Morgan-Price, S., et al. (Ricardo, E4tech, ifeu)

Reference

European Commission, Directorate-General for Climate Action, Hill, N., Amaral, S., Morgan-Price, S., et al., Determining the environmental impacts of conventional and alternatively fuelled vehicles through LCA : final report, Publications Office, 2020

ED11344 - Issue Number 3

Adoption date

13 July 2020

Scope and objectives

Transport is an important contributor to several environmental issues, including air pollution and climate change. The EU has set challenging objectives for tackling these. To help support decision making on mitigating actions in the transport sector it is paramount to develop a better understanding of the environmental impacts of road vehicles over their entire lifecycle.

This report summarises a range of vehicle life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies available in the public domain, which were found to be of varying focus, data quality, detail and coverage. It develops a policymaker-oriented LCA methodology for light- and heavy-duty vehicles covering a selection of major powertrain types and fuel chains for the 2020 to 2050 timeframe.

The study has combined state-of-the art vehicle LCA with novel methodological choices to develop results for a range of environmental impacts for 14 electricity chains, 60 fuel chains, and 65 generic vehicle/powertrain combinations across 7 vehicle types. It has also provided several suggestions for policy makers, based on these results, especially recommendations for future LCA research.

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